2013 November JAPAN TAPPI JOURNAL
 
Vol.67, No.11 Abstracts


Development and Application of Cellgaia, the Pulp where Zeolite Crystalized Densely Inside of the Wood Pulp

Kouju Sugiyama and Kaoru Yamaguchi
Central Laboratory, Rengo Co., Ltd.

  Zeolites are a family of minerals known for their powerful deodorization and anti-bacterial effect that are supported by metals such as copper and silver. In recent years attention is also being paid to zeolites for their ability to absorb radioactive materials that are dissolved into water.
  Despite this advanced function, until now there were no effective methods for affixing zeolites to materials such as paper or fabric, which has limited the fields in which they can be used.
  Rengo has carried out research and development, including that related to paper manufacturing, for many years, and has successfully crystallized zeolite inside the wood pulp densely. Rengo has commercialized the resulting product as the high-performance pulp.
  Cellgaia preserves all of zeolite's exemplary functions while maintaining the shape of the fibers. It can be applied to many types of fiber products such as paper, nonwovens, and cotton. The performance of this product can also be adjusted easily according to desired functions.


Polyacrylamide-Based Surface Strength Agents Appropriate for Low Basis Weight Paperboard

Shouko Sato
Paper Chemical Business Division, Seiko PMC, Co., Ltd.

  Recently, the production of lower basis weight grades of paperboard is progressing for environmental impact reduction, energy saving, and cost reduction in papermaking industry. Paper strength properties generally tend to decrease as the basis weight is reduced. To compensate paper strength of low basis weight paperboard, dry strength agents are applied. The combination of internal and external application methods is needed to efficiently increase the compressive strength. Preventing buckling and reinforcing interfiber bonding were important factors for improving the compressive strength. The external application could be more effective to prevent buckling.
  The simulation of relationship between penetration depth of PAM and bending stiffness of paper was carried out. The optimal penetration depth existed for maximum bending stiffness. To achieve the optimal penetration depth of PAM, molecular design of PAM for external (surface) application was conducted. PAM with the branched structure, high molecular weight, and low viscosity showed the best performance for compressive strength.


Toward Production of Bioethanol Using Pulp Rejects from Kraft Pulp Mills as Raw Materials

Masanori Kishino, Ken Orihashi and Akira Harada
Forest Products Research Institute, Hokkaido Research Organization

  Qualities of 6 kinds of pulp rejects from kraft pulp mills in Hokkaido were investigated as raw materials for production of bioethanol. The rejects were found to contain more than 50% cellulose, which is very susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis to glucose, and below 10% acid-insoluble lignin. Although 7-20% of the rejects, in particular with a big particle size, remained as residue, the rejects were hydrolyzed with cellulase to give glucose in over 50% as glucan on the rejects and over 90% on the glucan of rejects. The hydrolyzed solutions were fermented with yeast to give ethanol in more than 80% on theoretical yield.
  In addition, the rejects were hydrolyzed with cellulase for each particle size. Although the rejects in 2-4 mm gave glucose in a 56% yield on the rejects for 72 h of hydrolysis, the rejects in below 2 mm gave glucose in a 60-70% yield on the rejects for 24h. This result suggested that the yield of glucose from the rejects increased by decreasing the particle size into bellow 2mm. The rejects as raw materials contained more than 50% of the rejects with a size of over 2 mm. Then, defibrillated rejects with laboratory blender, which contained less than 3% of the rejects with a size of over 2 mm, were prepared, and hydrolyzed with cellulase. As a result, the yield of glucose from the defibrillated rejects increased by over 10%, and its residue decreased by over 15% compared with those from untreated and washed rejects.
  In conclusion, the pulp rejects from kraft pulp mills were suitable as raw materials for production of bioethanol.


The Deinking Agent and Other Chemicals for Pulp Recycling

Ryugo Shimoyama
Research & Development Dept.CNissin Kagaku Kenkyusho Co., Ltd.

  The technologies of recycling lower quality waste paper have been developed in recent years. As one of suppliers for deinking agent, we also has developed and functionalized the deinking agent to solve various problems.  In this report, we describe the basic knowledge of deinking agent and other chemicals for pulp recycling, such as repulping promoter, fluorescence quencher, slime control agent, and pitch control agent.


The Latest Trend of Paper Technology in Southeast Asia

Kazunari Sato
Paper Machine Engineering Dept., Voith IHI Paper Technology Co., Ltd.

  We report here the Latest Trend of Paper Technology in Southeast Asia, especially in Vietnam and Thailand, which market has very strong relation with Voith IHI Paper Technology Co., Ltd. In Vietnam,VKPC (Vina Kraft Paper Co., Ltd.) PM#1, the largest paper machine for liner and corrugating medium started its operation in Apr, 2009, supplied by Voith IHI Paper Technology Co., Ltd. At VKPC PM1, Sizer Project has just started in 2012 and this new project is in progress at the moment.
  Besides, the paper machine Khon Kaen PM1 of Phoenix Pulp and Paper Co.,Ltd, which produce woodfree writing and printing papers and copy papers, have started up in Thailand in 2008. This paper will introduce these paper machines with state-of-art technology, machine layout and its design concept. Furthermore, the latest trend and forecast of paper business market in both Vietnam and Thailand is reported briefly with reference to the report of Vietnam Pulp and Paper Association, and Thai Pulp and Paper Industries Association.


Paper Business Revitalization Plan and Production System Restructuring Following the Great East Japan Earthquake

Jun Usami
Finishing department, Ai-mate Inc., Nippon Paper Group

  Nippon Paper Industries' Ishinomaki Mill was in crisis due to complete devastation by the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011. Following the companyfs Paper Business Revitalization Plan, all six papermaking machines together with the two coating machines were in full operation within just one and half years.
  Reconstruction began with debris removal, followed by reconnection of the power supply, and finally the restarting of the production line. No one had experience of rebuilding after such extensive damage, so clearing up, selecting which parts could be saved, or how equipment could be rescued, and dealing with components that had been immersed in sea water, all had to be done by trial and error.
  When it came rebuilding the finishing section, in order to establish a more efficient process, it was possible to introduce procedures to minimize the need for paper defect inspection. Such a gNo Screeningh system has been a goal at the mill for more than ten years.
  At the same time, in reconstructing the mill, PPC (plain paper copier) facilities were introduced as a new business at Ishinomaki mill, according to Nippon Paper Industriesf plan to downsize the domestic paper business to meet demand.
  Inexperienced operators were trained at another mill for three months, and then, together with the experienced operators, on the new facilities when they were started.
  However, even though reconstruction has been fully completed, we will continue to struggle with problems such as rust from seawater, land subsidence caused by the earthquake, further reconstruction of the finishing section for more efficient operation, and the early stabilization of the PPC facilities


LeanE - New Approach toward Energy Saving

Masaharu Menjo and Akifumi Hatta
Sales Department, Metso Paper Japan Co., Ltd.

  Mechanical pulping requires huge amount of electricity during its operation. However, the pulp properties produced by mechanical pulping are attractive for several light weight paper products, e.g. newsprint. Paper mills have been always attempting to reduce energy consumption for the mechanical pulping and there are still requirements and expectations toward energy reduction from our customers. For utilizing the TMP lines with more efficiency, Metso Paper are providing a new approach toward energy saving, LeanE concept; Experts from Metso Paper visit paper mills and audit whole TMP lines during their operation. By collecting and analyzing the actual production conditions, we finally propose the best solution for the energy saving to our customers.
  LeanE concept consists of newly designed and developed equipments, such as screw feeders, mechanical vapor separators, refiner segments and gap sensors. By replacing existing equipments with new ones, energy consumption can be reduced without deteriorating pulp quality. Some novel idea for energy saving (for example, refining with low consistency and increase of refiner number) are also included in LeanE concept. Several paper mills already experienced LeanE concept and they are satisfied with the results of energy reduction. Not only for TMP lines, LeanE concept can be also applied to kraft-pulp production line and certain amount of energy consumption was successfully reduced at several paper mills. In this paper, the basic information and actual examples of LeanE concept are to be introduced.


hFiber to Printh, Optimizing Paper Process

Jarkko Ruonala and Jukka Nokelainen
Metso Automation Inc.
Kenichi Ishihara
Metso Automation K.K.

  When quality control is concerned, the focus is often on the paper machine. However, the quality potential for a paper machine is always set before it in the pulp mill and stock preparation area. Correcting stock preparation upsets at paper machine is already too late. To put it simple, the paper machine merely forms the sheet and removes the water, whereas everything else is done at furnish preparation.
  This paper will present the measurement and optimization possibilities in holistic quality management at paper machine and present an example case for end product quality management by means of optimizing stock preparation area.


DCS Evolution gThe Next Generation DCS. Experion PKSh

Jun Fujii
Energy & Chemical Markets, Honeywell Japan Inc.

  Competition among the process industries has become extreme, and to survive from such competition and to lead it to the 21st Century, it has become obviously necessary for business and control information to make rapid and exact decisions by rich experience and state of art technologies.
  It is also inevitably required for DCS to have such functions as virtual security to protect system from hacking and virus, reducing alarms, integration with other systems and single windows, as evolving opened system and IT technologies.
  Current issue on DCS is how to broad to perform operations safety and effectively as reducing load for each operator of the system.
  In this article, Honeywellfs DCS ofgExperion PKSh released in this June globally, is introduced, including its new functions.


Development Background and Field Cases of Color Surface Inspection System (MaxEye.Color)

Masahiro Suzuki
FUTEC Inc.

  FUTEC has delivered over 7,200 sets of surface inspection systems to various markets including the plain sheet material markets such as paper and pulp, film, metal foil, non-woven fabric and printing markets such as offset printing, flexo printing and gravure printing since 1978.
  A sheet surface inspection system, equipped with the monochrome line scan cameras, uses inspection objectfs contrast and shape data for defect classification. Therefore it makes difficult to classify the defects by color.
  Another reason for the difficulty of defect classification by color is that the
conventional color line scan camera (drive frequency: 40MHz) is not capable of having enough MD resolution for clear image.
  Now, FUTEC has developed a new surface color inspection system,gMaxEye.Colorh, using high-speed color line scan camera technology with a drive frequency of 80MHz.
Three main features of this system are: (1) a clear color image of defect, (2) an intuitive color defect classification setting, (3) a real-time color defect classification.
  This system enables operators to see sharp, clear color view of defects to determine
the cause of defects in early stage of production.
  Furthermore, it carries out the automatic defect classification for color defects only by using real time processing function. This function contributes to the operation efficiency by supporting operatorsf checking process.


Some Characteristics of Corrosion- and Abrasion-Resistant Weld Metal in Water-Cooled Boiler Panels

Hiroaki Fukumoto and Taketoshi Goto
Welding alloys Japan Ltd.

  Recently low quality fuel have been utilized in pulp and paper industry, in consideration of reducing CO2 emission policy and rising price of crude oil price. Low quality fuel has various problems respectively such as corrosion problem caused by sulfur and chloride content in it. Various conclusions for these problems are proposed about these problems.
  Boiler panel cladding method has been recognized as a proven technology for water wall protection in U.S since 1990s. This article describes some characteristics of overlay material and the best practices applied to water wall panels.


From Rag to Wood: The Review of the Technologies of Producing Pulp
from Wood (PartⅠ)

Kiyoaki Iida

  In Europe, rag was a main pulp source in paper making until the midst of the nineteenth century. As the demand of paper increased in the industrial revolution, new pulp source had to be developed, and some visionaries thought that wood would be able to be an alternative. So, the work to produce pulp from wood started, and major pulping processes, ground wood, alkaline (soda and kraft) and sulfite processes, were industrially established in such a short period as about 50 years. As pulp became affluently available, paper was widely used and helped develop intellectual and social activities. In some sense, the technology of producing pulp from wood is as important as the invention of paper 2000 years ago, and helped the cultural development of mankind in the twentieth century.
  In the first half of this paper, the history of producing ground wood pulp, and soda and kraft pulp was reviewed. In the latter half of this paper that will appear in the next volume, sulfite process was reviewed. Then, how those technologies influenced the cultural development in the twentieth century was discussed.


Corporate Profile & Product Information (7)

Harima Chemicals Group, Inc.

  Harima Chemicals Group, Inc. was established in 1947 in Kakogawa. We are a chemical manufacturer built on products developed using pine chemical resources. Our products are used in a wide range of fields from resin for chemicals for paper production, printing ink, paints and adhesives, to emulsifier for synthetic rubber, and solder used by electronic appliances. For paper chemicals, we offer a wide array of products including sizing agents for preventing (water-based) inks from bleeding, paper strengthening agents for structural fortification, and coating agents for improving and reinforcing paper surfaces.
  Now with an international network spanning 32 manufacturing bases in 11 countries, we meet the needs of our customers all over the world.


Experience in Australian Paper as the First Representative

Mitsuhiro Sugino
Production Dept., Technical & Engineering Div., Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.

  In 2009, I was transferred to Australian Paper as a Nippon paper representative because Australian Paper (hereinafter referred to as AP) became a member of Nippon Paper Group. During my stay in Australia, I tried to introduce some of Nippon paperfs ways into AP and most of them were accepted by AP management albeit, after much discussion and some minor modification to ensure alignment with their Australian culture.
  In terms of the life in Australia, it was exciting for me because it provided me with an opportunity to experience another culture and to make many friends. I also had a chance to become a member of Latrobe International Exchange Committee and was in charge of Sister City Day Festival etc. From a globalization perspective, to know and understand another culture, their language and their way of thinking, was very important and rewarding for me and I believe this will be of benefit to me in my future roles with Nippon Paper.


Research Report
Characterization of Refractory Organic Matter in Pulp and Paper Mill Effluents

Masayuki Watanabe, Keiko Fujita, Hiro Iwata, Yutaka Nuruki, Kazuko Watanabe, Miyuki Nakagawaand Hitoshi Okada
Japan Pulp and Paper Research Institute, lnc.

  The quality of wastewater from Japanese pulp and paper mills has been recently improved, due to regulation of effluent standards which has been stricter since the Water Pollution Control Law was enforced in 1972. However, it has not attained yet in some mills that the level of COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) of the wastewater becomes below the environmental standard. Accumulation of refractory organic matter has been pointed out as a new problem especially for a part of the closed water area in spite of regulation of total emission. Japan Pulp and Paper Research Institute is researching this problem.
  As the first step of this theme, the characterization of the refractory organic matter was studied. Dissolved organic matter in wastewater was fractionated into five fractions; hydrophobic acid, hydrophobic neutral, base, hydrophilic acid, hydrophilic neutral. Based on measurements of the degradation rates of the fractionated components, it was confirmed that the most refractory matter was fractionated into the hydrophobic acid.
  Furthermore, we compared softwood and hardwood kraft pulp (KP) bleaching drainages. Softwood KP bleaching drainage was more resistant to decomposition than hardwood KP bleaching drainage, and contained the hydrophobic acid in a higher ratio. In addition, the hydrophobic acid in softwood in hardwood KP bleaching drainage.
  In order to investigate the source of the hydrophobic acid, the each process drainage was fractionated as well. As a result, the maximum source of the hydrophobic acid was KP bleaching process. Pyrolysis GC-MS analysis of the hydrophobic acid of bleaching drainage indicated that lignin was a major composition of the refractory organic matter.