|December 2012 JAPAN TAPPI JOURNAL|
|December 2012 JAPAN TAPPI JOURNAL
Vol.66, No.12 Abstracts
Environmental Problems of China as Viewed in the Power Transfer Period
-The future of Paper Industry as Related to Political Power & Environmental Governance Relationship-
Emeritus Professor, The University of Tokyo
The shifting to "Reform & Liberalization Policy" by Deng Xiaoping in1978 is the turning point of contemporary China. After this period, Chinese economy has made remarkable progress and finally attained to be ranked as the second in GDP and the first in production & consumption of paper and paperboard in the world. However, since the environmental policies were ranked lower compared with the economic growth policies, and that due to the financial deficit, the deterioration of environment of China is serious and wide spread issue. After attending the UN Conference on the Human Environment in 1972, China has convened the 1st National Environmental Conference and started to bring forth administrative agencies for environment and to develop legal systems. Therefore, "environmental governance system" is officially existing to cope with environmental issues generated by a variety of mills in local area. However, the problem is that the local government is tend to favor economic growth of local area rather than environmental protection and hesitates to enforce legal actions against environmentally illegal mills. Furthermore, high authorities of the Chinese Communist Party and its lower subordinate organs have influential power for local government.
This paper is intended to analyze to what extent the power structure after the power transfer will affect the "environmental governance system" and the future of paper industry on the basis of 12th Five Year Plan and its underlying guiding ideologies of "Scientific Development Concept" and "Harmonious Society".
Practical Application and Fundamental Principle for Prevention of Noise and Low-Frequency Sound Problem
Technical Division, INC Engineering Co.,Ltd.
These days, the subject of noise and low-frequency sound, such as a wind-power-generation and a residential heat pump water heater ( Eco Cute), is taken up in mass media etc.
In the 2010 fiscal year, the noise complaints that were brought to local governments in japan were more than 15000 affairs, and the low-frequency sound complaints were only 250 affairs.
Although there are not many numbers of low-frequency sound complaints, the upward tendency is shown every year. In addition to those numbers, many unreported complaints may exist.
How to advance in an anti-noise measure has been changing from the conventional measure against symptomatic therapy to the measure against prevention recently, and the noise of a machine, a factory, etc. must be considered increasingly in a planning or a design phase.
Here, the foundation of noise and low-frequency sound, the target, standard and index of a measure, and investigation and measure, prevention technology, etc. are explained.
And, the practical use situation to the design example of a large-scale sound barrier, comparatively new active-noise-control technology for three-dimensional space noise, such as construction task noise, etc. are explained.
How to Use the Waste Water Treatment Chemicals
KURITA WATER INDUSTRIES LTD.
Environmental chemicals technology department Chemical division
The technical knowledge of both the facility and the chemicals for the coagulation(flocculation) and settling system is required for the engineers and the plant manager of the waste water treatment plant in paper mill.
This is an introduction of basic technology and some application know-how for an effective operation of a waste water treatment plant.
Trouble of Activated Sludge
-Determine the Cause and Countermeasures-
Kitamen Limited company
Many processing obstacles have occurred in the liquid waste treatment by an activated sludge method.
It is pressing need to study the prime cause of these processing obstacles and to solve troubles.
There are the following two important elements.
EBOD load as a design problem
EDO (dissolved oxygen) as an operation management index
I think that BOD load evaluated by oxygen consumption for five days is not suitable.
Because, it is presumed that more than the BOD load evaluated by oxygen consumption for five days is applied to activated sludge.
A suspended substance (SS) is classified into minerals and an organic matter.
Furthermore, an organic matter is classified into a soluble substance and an undissolved substance.
Soluble SS begins to melt little by little in a processing cycle, and changes to BOD.
The sum total of the BOD load of the raw water which flows into an aeration tank (biological treatment tub), and the BOD load into which soluble SS began to melt is the load (source of nutrient) to a microbe.
Under the environment of an electrical overload, activated sludge carries out abnormal metabolism of the viscous substance (macromolecule polysaccharide).
Activated sludge stops taking in BOD and oxygen, and DO meter shows the measurement value that dissolved oxygen is left.
If it observes under a microscope, activated sludge has caused viscous bulking by an electrical overload in many cases.
The dissolved oxygen measured is not necessarily the amount of oxygen which was used for activated sludge and remained.
The ways of coping of the above-mentioned trouble are also explained.
The Strategy for the CRE, Corporate Real Estate, Concerned with the Soil Contamination
Technical Division, Kokusai Environmental Solutions Co.,Ltd.
After the Great East Japan Earthquake, Japanese company has to optimize the CRE, which is occupied greatly in the assets, to raise the cooperate value and for the growth strategy of the company. In developing the CRE strategy, it is very important to grasp the soil contamination risk and minimize the impact for the management and utilize the real estate property.
For this purpose, the survey which confirms the historical land use is applied as screening at first. And it is desirable to carry out the field survey as the gradual approach on site where the potential of the soil contamination risk is assumed to be high.
And the concept of a risk level matrix is introduced as a technique in the case of evaluating two or more offices or factories in parallel with a certain evaluation axis. This is distributed as the matrix using the two evaluation axis. One is the potential for the soil contamination and the other is the impact to the circumference.
Based on these concepts, the company has to do the screening the corporate real estate from a viewpoint of the soil contamination risk first of all, and do the detailed survey according to the progress of sale negotiation. Further, it is strongly desirable to consider the land use not only for sale but also for keeping and apply the on-site treatment which is cost effective if the soil contamination is found on the real estate.
Appropriate Disposal and Recycling of Wastes with "MLG¥SUPERTM"
Green Industrial Circles of Environmental, Specified Nonprofit Corporation
and Green World, Co., Ltd.
As a method to become harmless and to recycle the wastes such as the incineration ash and the dust, we introduce the chemical insolubilization process with the processing agents called MLG-SUPER, combined used the cement solidification. The processing changes harmful heavy metals into an insoluble compounds effectively, and carries out stable fixation. Much more effective detoxification is realizable by carrying out substitution fixation of the compound made insoluble into the solidification network structure formed of the hydration reaction of cement solidification. Because long-term stable detoxification is guaranteed, the processing thing formed by such a method is suitable for the recycling use.
The Situation in the Foreign Countries and the Introduction to Japan about WET (Whole Effluent Toxicity Testing)
National Institute for Environmental Studies, Center for Environmental Risk Research
It is carried out Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) system to regulate an effluent without identifying chemicals to use in vivo bioassay in the United States. It costs to determine concentration and toxicity of many chemicals are included in the effluent. Additionally, it is difficult to detect and calculate additive, synergistic and antagonistic effect of a chemical mixture.
The purpose of WET is to evaluate effect of the whole effluent by exposing organisms to the effluent directly. Toxicity reduction evaluation (TRE) and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) must be conducted to reduce toxicity when judged that the effluent is noxious. It is also operated the regulation of effluent based on an acute and chronic bioassay in Canada, European countries, Australia and Korea. The Japan Ministry of the Environment started to investigate effective effluent regulation system using bioassay from 2009. The chronic test can determine the effect of reproduction and an early stage development contributing to maintenance of a species population and the ecosystem. Therefore, it is assumed that a short term chronic test is appropriate for evaluation/management of the effluent in Japan.
Preventive Countermeasures against Groundwater Pollution by the Revision of the Water Pollution Control Act
Office for Groundwater and Ground Environment, Soil Environment Management Division, Environment Management Bureau, Ministry of the Environment
In JAPAN, groundwater has been widely used as important fresh water resource, owing to its pure quality and stable temperature. Approximately a quarter of the nation's overall amount of water for drinking and industry is supplied from groundwater. Therefore, it is very important to keep high quality of groundwater for our daily life and environment. On the other hand, once groundwater is contaminated, we need many years to recover the quality of it.
Japanese Government, Ministry of the Environment has developed laws and ordinances to prevent groundwater contamination and to keep quality of groundwater. However, groundwater contamination has continuously been confirmed caused by leak of hazardous substance to underground from factories and plants. Therefore, Central Environment Council has discussed effective precautionary measures against possible groundwater contamination by hazardous substances from factories and plants
In keeping with the report of the Council submitted to the Minister, the Water Pollution Control Law was amended and went into effect on June 1st 2012. The major points of amendment are as follows.
1) Expanding the facilities subject to the regulation
Any person who establishes a facility for storing harmful substances ("Designated Facility for Storing Hazardous Substances") shall notify a prefectural governor, etc. of the structure, etc. of the facility in advance.
2) Compliance obligation on the standards of the structure, etc.
Any person who establishes a specific facility which use, produce or dispose hazardous substances ("Specific Facility for Use of Hazardous Substances") and/or a Designated Facility for Storing Hazardous Substances shall comply with the standards of the structure, etc. of the facility. In addition, a prefectural governor, etc. may, if necessary, give an order in this regard when the said facility has not complied with such standards.
3) Obligation on implementation of regular inspection and maintenance of records
Any person who establishes a Specific Facility for Use of Hazardous Substances and/or a Designated Facility for Storing Hazardous Substances shall inspect those facilities periodically, record and preserve the result.
Case Introduction of Environmental Communication Activities of the Oji Paper Group
Kasugai Mill, Oji Paper Co., Ltd.
In the Oji group, the environmental charter was enacted in January, 1997 and eco management has been tackled.
The measure example of the Oji Paper Kasugai factory which is a city type factory which is tackling positively environmental communications, such as an information exchange with a local resident and philanthropy activities, is introduced.
The Oji Paper Kasugai factory is a comprehensive paper pulp mill which produces the prime coated paper, paper of fine quality, a medium quality paper, kraft, tissue, a disposable diaper, etc.
The Oji Paper Kasugai factory is located at the center in Kasugai with a population of 300,000 located in the northeast part of Nagoya.
A site including a company residence area is about 840,000m2, and occupies about a little less than 1% of the whole surface products of Kasugai.
Urbanization progressed quickly with development of the Nagoya suburbs, and the environment which surrounds a factory has changed a lot.
Environmental communication activities have the following.
(1) As an information exchange with a local resident, ① papermill surrounding area liaison committee, ② Shonai river maintenance problem study group, ③ environmental monitor meeting, ④ Kasugai environmental city planning partnership meeting.
(2) As a community activity, ① factory tour, ② Oji rose garden, ③ boys baseball convention,④ a cherry tree festival , a summer festival ⑤ Shonai river, and Jizou river cleaning, ⑥ the recycling activities of used half-split chopsticks, ⑦participation in an administration-sponsored event.
In the Oji group, "the ambient behavior target 2015" was newly held up as a measure target to the environment towards 2015 for the purpose of the further environmental improvement.
Improvement the Performance of Industrial Waste Water at Ashikaga Mill
Environment & Safety Dept., Paperboard Div. , Nippon Paper Industries Co., LTD.
Ashikaga mill wanted to improve the performance of waste water, controlling the color in particular, also had the problem to course the anaerobic fermentation in residual sludge of secondary clarifier. Due to the unique structure of the secondary clarifier and the restriction of the dewatering capacity of the sludge from the secondary clarifier, the level of sludge in secondary clarifier was needed to maintain higher to avoid unstable consistency.
After the improvement of capacity of sludge, we repeated improvement in the process on operation, mainly to maintain stable the dewater ability of the sludge from the secondary clarifier and the efficiency on biological treatment.
Furthermore we also changed the combination of flocculent and coagulant in the process. As a result of these actions, we could produce BOD5 removal efficiency and improved color of waste water.
A Report on International Paper and Coating Chemistry Symposium & International Paper Physics Conference
Advanced Technology Laboratories, Oji Holdings Co.,Ltd.
The International Paper and Coating Chemistry Symposium (IPCCS) and the International Paper Physics Conference (IPPC), which were both organized by Innventia and KTH, were held concurrently in Stockholm, Sweden, from June 10th to 14th, 2012. 400 people from 24 different countries participated in the conference and symposium, which included 15 sessions with at total of 138 oral presentations. This report is a review of the conference, the symposium, and some of the oral presentations.
Research Life at Laboratoire de Gé nie des Procé dé s Papetiers (LGP2) in Grenoble, France
Research Institute, National Printing Bureau, Japan
Laboratoire de Gé nie des Procé dé s Papetiers (LGP2; Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Science and Graphic Arts) is the only national laboratory for paper, pulp and printing sciences in France. LPG2 is located in Grenoble and has around a hundred members of professors, Ph.D. and post-doc students in addition to engineers and administrative staffs, half of whom were foreigners. LPG2 shares the same area with École internationale du papier, de la communication imprimé e et des biomaté riaux (Pagora) which is one of the largest engineering school exclusive for paper, pulp and printing sciences in Europe. This article will introduce LGP2 and a researcher's life in Grenoble on the basis of author's experiences.
Corporate Profile & Products Information (1)
NIPPON FELT CO., LTD.
Nippon Felt Co., Ltd was founded in 1917, and has been continued to expand since the dawn of Japanese paper industry. Press felts for papermaking need to meet high quality demands in preciseness and uniformity for high speed production of thin sheet of paper like 0.1mm in thickness without defect. Since each press felt for papermaking is made-to-order for each press position of paper machines, its design is very much diverse.
This article introduces the press-felt' production processes and products, as well as an outline of Nippon Felt Co., Ltd that has been answering the needs of times and producing the world class products.
Reduction of Pollutant from Bleached Kraft Pulp Mills by the Process Conversion to ECF Bleaching(Part Ⅲ)
- Reductions of Emission and Generation of Dioxins in Bleached Filtrates, Bleached Pulps and Whole Mill Effluents -
Kazumasa Toyotaa), Reiji Kaneko a), Kazuhito Kawasaki and Katsuichi Terada
Japan Pulp Paper Research Institute, Inc.
a) Current address: Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.
We have reported effect of elemental chlorine free (ECF) bleaching for mill effluent in previous paper. As a result of change chemical substances for pulp bleach, the amounts of absorbable organic halogen (AOX) and extractable organic halogen (EOX) decrease to significant lower level when substitution of chlorine dioxide is used. A more recent survey for polychlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans (Dioxins) are also studied.
Effects of ECF bleaching on reduction of dioxins were investigated for 14 bleached kraft pulp mills in Japan, which is a largest study in domestic. Dioxins concentrations in the bleached pulps, bleached filtrates, and whole mill effluents before and after the ECF conversions were measured and compared.
After the ECF bleaching process was introduced, the generation of dioxins was dramatically suppressed in all of the mills, and the dioxin levels were decreased by less than 1/50 after the ECF conversion. Similarly, the concentrations of dioxins of the bleached filtrates after the conversion also decreased by less than 1/20, strongly indicating that the shift of bleaching process to the ECF bleaching effectively suppresses the generation of dioxins.
The dioxin levels in the whole mill effluents after ECF conversion of the mills were below 1pg-TEQ/L that is the environmental standard in Japan. Furthermore, some isomers of dioxins specifically generated by chlorine bleaching process were not detected in the whole mill effluents, confirming that the ECF conversion effectively suppresses the emission of dioxins into the environment.
Already in two companies 14 mills, generation of dioxins from bleaching processes are not ditected. Further, most emissions of dioxins from effluents also became an excellent levels.
Paper Gloss Analysis by Specular Reflection Point Spread Function (Part Ⅱ)
-Spatial Frequency Analysis for Paper Gloss-
Shinichi Inoue, Yukio Kotori and Masayuki Takishiro
Process Development Laboratory, Mitsubishi Paper Mills Limited
It is known experientially that a feeling of gloss will be affected by sharpness of the reflected light image which is not only the amount of light. In image science, analysis technology is established as sharpness. The typical analysis technology of sharpness is the spatial frequency analysis using MTF (Modulation Transfer Function). However, MTF about specular reflection phenomenon is not well known.
Authors have proposed a concept for Point Spread Function of Specular Reflection (SR-PSF), and have developed this measuring apparatus. Measurement and its analysis of the SR-PSF have been reported (part I). In this study, a concept for Modulation Transfer Function of Specular Reflection (SR-MTF) is proposed, and the spatial frequency analysis of paper gloss by SR-MTF is reported. SR-MTFs of the printing paper are measured. The feature of SR-MTF has low resolution in the incidence direction of light and high resolution in a width direction. In the coated paper for printing, it became clear that SR-MTF has a value only up to spatial frequency about 1.0 (cycles/mm).
Image Clarity (JIS-K7374) and SR-MTF measure the same physical characteristic fundamentally. Because the range of the spatial frequency is too high in Image Clarity, so it is not fit for measurement of the printing paper which has a value only with low spatial frequency. Therefore, the spatial frequency analysis by SR-MTF is fit for paper gloss.
In this study, SR-PSF and SR-MTF of the specular reflection phenomenon were discussed. PSF and MTF are fundamental analysis tools in image science. By having introduced SR-PSF and SR-MTF, a specular reflection phenomenon can be physically analyzed. Moreover, I would like to examine a new reflection model and to apply it to computer graphics.