|2011 June JAPAN TAPPI JOURNAL
Vol.65, No.6 Abstracts
Utilizing Wood Biomass as Energy such as Power Generation and Thermal Use
-Current Situation of its Utilization and Problems to be Solved when Developing Biomass Utilization into Business-
Kankyo Shisetsu, Editor-in-Chief, Kokyo Toshi Journal Inc.
With the revision of the New Energy Law by a cabinet order in 2002, the government introduced subsidies for the construction of woody biomass power plants, prompting companies, municipalities, forest unions, and other organizations to build such facilities nationwide. In 2003, the Renewable Portfolio Standard Law came into force, accelerating the construction of facilities that generated 5 to 50 megawatts of electricity using woody biomass. In addition, a wide range of projects to use woody biomass energy, including the development of next-generation bio-fuel such as cellulosic bioethanol, the use of biomass heat for a wider range of purposes, and thermal power generation by burning a mixture of coal and biomass, are currently under way.
According to a survey by the Forestry Agency, by the end of fiscal 2008 the number of woody biomass power plants had reached 144, 12 times as many as in fiscal 1999, when the survey was first carried out, and the number of boiler facilities using heat from woody biomass had also grown sharply from 174 in fiscal 1999 to 615. A shortage of wood chip and soaring fuel prices lowered the operating rate of these facilities and hit their profitability, but there have recently been plans to add biomass to fuel at coal-burning thermal power plants and to build large power plants using woody biomass alone, and so the supply-demand for wood chips is expected to become tight again. The changing circumstances for using woody biomass energy are heightening expectations for untapped biomass resources such as forestry residues, which have been impeded by high costs.
Using woody biomass as a source of energy is the final stage of the cascaded use of forest resources. Recently, various business models with new value such as energy service companies (ESCO), carbon offsets, and CO2 emissions trading have been announced, and feed-in tariffs for power generated using woody biomass are expected to be introduced. These changes will increase the profitability of woody biomass power generation, which has been a stumbling block so far. Woody biomass power generation should be promoted as an effective way to achieve the Forestry Agencyfs Forest and Forestry Revival Plan, which aims to increase lumber self-sufficiency to 50% by 2020 and create a low-carbon society.
Approach to Energy Saving at Otake Mill
Otake Mill, Nippon Daishowa Paperboard Co., Ltd.
Nippon Daishowa Paperboard Co., Ltd. approaches to energy saving based on environmental action plan. I advocates fiscal 2010, reduce fossil energy consumption per ton product and fossil energy-derived CO2 emission per ton product by 20% and 16%, respectively, from the level of fiscal 1990.
In the Otake mill, we make trial and error, and we perform approach to the energy saving.
〉The concise grasp of the latest activities of the energy-saving activity by “the energy-saving measures construction plan”
〉The improvement of the investment effect of “the energy-saving measures examination book” by positive practical use
〉“Energy saving hearing” to carry out to draw up energy saving construction efficiently
〉“The gleaning” that was aimed for energy saving activity of the all the members participation type
Here, we introduce these four approach to energy saving.
Introduction to “Nobita-kun” Energy Efficient Cooling Coils
-Improvement of Vapor Compression Refrigerating and Heat Pump Performance by an Advance Cycle-
Sinryo Denki Hoan Association
Typical application of Vapor Compression Refrigerating and Heat Pump cycle is the package air conditioners, which the demands for performance improvement have been increasingly extending to many aspects as economy and environment.
In order to respond to these demands, Sinryo Denki Hoan Association advocate an “advance cycle”, based upon thermo-fluid dynamic point of view. Considering that Refrigerating and Heat Pump Cycles has been consider as “reverse CARNOT cycle” “advance cycle”, was started to review in view points of “reverse RANKINE cycle”, to offer less sensitive cycle to the irreversibility bound to occur in an actual plant. “Nobita-kun” is a heat exchange promoting device installed in to energy efficient coils”, which at the same time reduces compressor power the viewpoint of fluid dynamics. Test shows improve cycle performance either in static states or in dynamic states, and test with a simple form demonstrates cycle COP improvement that has demonstrated to give useful for daily operation.
The Discovery Method of the Energy-saving Source in the Factory
-Mechanism and Method of Theme Discovery in Production Site-
Techno Management Research Institute Co., Ltd.
Recently saving-energy has become an important issue to the management of pulp and paper industry. The huge investment is continuously required. On the other hand, saving energy without investment by all employees is reconsidered. However, site engineers / workers think that all saving activities are done and remain no more. To breakthrough the problem, there are two methods, 1) Organize small groups and make it clear the target, 2) How to discover the energy-saving source. In this paper, I will report the following method, “Target is decided by the relationship of value of production amount VS energy value unit”, “Visualization of energy usage”, “Index suitable to each site is management daily”, “Review of operating index relative to energy”, etc.
Energy Saving by Improvement of KP Washing Process and Vacuum Evaporating Process
Nobuhisa Nagao and Yoshihiro Saito
Kitakami HiTec Paper Corporation
Kitakami HiTec Paper Corp. (KHP) is located in the Kitakami city which is the inland of Iwate Prefecture. KHP is the subsidiary company which split from Mitsubishi Paper Mills Ltd. in 2005. In addition to commercial LBKP produced conventionally, there were started productions of the tissue in 1997, the base paper for the photograph and IJ (resin coated paper) and the fine paper in 2002. KHP has a series of pulp facilities, and a cooking system is M&D continuous digester which performs rapid vapor phase cooking. All raw materials are domestic wood chips, which are mainly from Iwate.
This report describes two contents of our efforts to raise the black liquor concentration by improvement of the KP washing process and to improve clogging in the vacuum evaporating process.
Automatic Classification of Paper Using Combinational Optimization of Image Features
Research Institute of National Printing Bureau
Noriko Yata and Tomoharu Nagao
Research Institute of Environment and Information Science, Yokohama National University
For security printings such as banknotes and securities, the ability to recognize fakes and forgeries is important. However, adding new features to security printings is not easy because it leads to cost increases. We therefore focused on information in the paper of such printed matter. The information of paper is changed by conditions of production. Therefore, it is conceivable that information of the paper is effective in the classification of the paper. Previous studies proposed, as a method of paper classification, a focus on features of paper images, such as periodic wire marks, and this has been shown to be effective. Hence we considered paper classification methods that reflected changes in a greater variety of features, and found that combining multiple features computable from images of the paper was effective.
This report describes a method of automatic classification of paper that used a Support Vector Machine which selects, with a Genetic Algorithm, multiple image features computable from captured images of papers. The image features used for the classification are features calculated from the pixel values, features obtainable from the binary image, features obtainable from the segmented image, and features computable from the Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix. Experiments have been carried out to determine the ability of the proposed method. Five kinds of paper provided by different manufacturers, and hand-made paper made under different conditions, were examined as specimens in these experiments to automatically configure of a paper classifier.
The results showed that, using the proposed method, it was possible to automatically configure a precision paper classifier capable of recognizing specific papers with different characteristics.