|2010 December JAPAN TAPPI JOURNAL
Vol.64, No.12 Abstracts
“Why Human Being is Attracted by Paper”
-The Future as Viewed from “Power of Paper”-
Emeritus Professor, The University of Tokyo
The human being as a living organism existing in a given environment possesses the mental process including sensation, perception and cognition. One can create psychological inner world in his brain as a microcosmos. The essential of dominance of paper media lies in the affinity of paper with human being. Developmental psychology theory suggests that the appeal of paper to human sensation and perception as well as the capability of paper of storing the meaning of sentences into the cognitive structure of individual brain deeply and stably are innate nature. Therefore, the paper media will maintain its dominance in the formation of individual essential knowledge even in the digital age. As for the hedonic value as an indicator of human affinity, the hedonic value of paper is highest among others and will boost cognition processes. On the contrary, the hedonic value of electronic displaying devices at the current stage is insufficient and will inhibit cognition processes. According to the Affordance theory, the body sensation as well as historical and cultural environments in the interaction between media and human being will affect cognition processes, the shape of media and various sensations other than visual one in the reading of paper-based book or electronic book reading terminal will affect cognition processes. For further elucidation of this issue, the cognitive science and brain science will be significant tools. The French media theory “Mediologie” expresses the role of paper of supporting material for characters as “Pouvoir du Papier (=Power of Paper)”. It is expected that the integration of “Mediologie” and “Cognitive Science” will further approach to the essentiality of “Power of paper”.
Status of International and Japan for Global Warming Tackling
The Institute of Energy Economics, Japan
As a global warming tackling, the Kyoto protocol was adopted in UNFCCC COP3 1997 and entered into force in 2005. The Kyoto protocol is regally binding of the emission reduction to developed countries. All countries including Japan are required to achieve the target reduction because already the Kyoto protocol is into target year (2008-2012).
On the other hand, the international negotiation of global warming tackling is focused on next following framework of the Kyoto protocol because the Kyoto target is by 2012. Japan should advocate the fair and effective international agreement for the post Kyoto protocol. For the domestic discussion, not only ideals and it is necessary to show the possibility and the image in the future to the citizen.
Keywords: Kyoto protocol, Post Kyoto protocol, UNFCCC, AWG-KP, AWG-LCA, International negotiation, Emission trading scheme, Carbon tax
Status and Trend of Environmental Laws and Regulations
Environmental Management Department, Oji Paper Co., Ltd.
Although many environmental laws and regulations have been enacted and put in force mainly to tighten the control since the 1990s, this trend could continue for the duration.
The focus of attention to come in environmental laws and regulations could be placed on (a) energy saving and global warming curbing countermeasures, (b) the chemical substance management and (c) waste and recycling affairs. Especially, it is expected to introduce a drastic reform for "Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law" because there are some situations taking place, which interfere with adequate recycling.
In this environmental report, the environmental laws and regulations are presented, which have been revised for the past several years and have to be watched closely. It can be said that for ensuring compliance to environmental laws and regulations, it is necessary to understand the purpose and outline of the laws and regulations, and raise the level of efforts.
Factory Noise Source Identification and Countermeasure using Noise Vision
Consulting Division, Nittobo Acoustic Engineering Co., Ltd.
In recent years, the factory noise becomes a severe problem in Japan. It is not only important to the surroundings, but also important to protect the people who are working in the factory. To make an effective countermeasure for reducing noise, it is very important to find the noise sources and know their characteristics. However, generally, since there are too many noise sources around the factory, the noise source identification may be very hard and it may cost too much.
In this paper, a novel noise source identification technique and system is introduced. The name of the system is "Noise Vision"; it can display the noise source strength on the pictures quickly. The system uses a hard spherical microphone array with flush mounted cameras. As applications of this system, several cases identifying factory noise source are introduced. It is very useful way to reduce both cost and time for noise source investigation.
Some Concerns on Waste Disposal and Public Cleaning Law
-For the Paper Industry to be a Top Runner in a Recycling Category-
BUN Environment Study Office
Waste Disposal and Public Cleaning law is operated under strictly controlled licensing policy. Waste paper, which belongs to “4 items which have already been recycled”, has been regarded an item without being required to get license since the law got in action.
Then, what is recycling? What kind of performance will be asked for the paper industry to keep the privilege of doing outside the licensing policy?
The Improvement of the Throb from the Fiber Recycle Plant
Kanto Mill (Ichikawa), Hokuetsu Kishu Paper Co., Ltd.
Hokuetsu Kishu Paper Co., Ltd. Kanto mill consist of two divisions which are Ichikawa (Chiba prefecture) and Katsuta (Ibaraki prefecture). The main products of Ichikawa Division are Coated White lined board and Specialty White Paper board which are made up chiefly of the recycled fiber.
Ichikawa Division is located near the Tokyo metropolitan area and this location has great advantages of collecting the wastepaper and delivering our products. On the other hand, this location is surrounded by residential area. Therefore, how to operate these plants with minimum environment impact is the most important issue for us. In particular, the fiber recycle plant and the stock preparation system are located very close to residential area. Therefore, in order to improve these environmental issues, we have been doing the efforts as much as possible.
In this report, we introduce the improvement of the throb from the fiber recycle plant.
Nippon Paper Industries Conducts Environmental Activities and Community Development
Environment & Safety Dept., Technical & Engineering Div.
Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.
The Nippon Paper Group is committed to helping preserve the global environment over the long term and contributing to the development of a recycling-based society by carrying out its corporate activities in recognition of the importance of biodiversity based on its Charter on the Environment to reflect the philosophy behind its environmental measures. And the Nippon Paper Group conducts various activities based on its corporate philosophy and corporate citizenship initiatives. Nippon Paper Industries also conducts various environmental activities connected with community development. We introduce some characteristic cases what we recently conduct together with local government offices or other company.
Environment in Asia and China
Deputy Director, International Cooperation Bureau, Keidanren
China’s rapid growth is now a driving force in the Asian economy．However, growth is also seriously generating major environmental liabilities. China's government recognizes this problem and developed laws and institutions to protect the environment, have achieved significant results. But problems remain with the implementation and enforcement of environmental regulations. This article surveys China's environment policy from viewpoint of Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle.
Recovery of Heavy Metal from Bottom Ash and Fly Ash
Department of Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University
In Japan, 22.8 million tons of incineration residues are generated at present and about 7 million tons of them are disposed finally. Incineration residue with various kinds of heavy metal is a recyclable resource. Recovery of heavy metals from incineration residue is important from the perspectives of resource recycling and reducing environmental risks associated with heavy metals. In this paper, recovery technologies of heavy metal for fly ash are introduced after indicating important points on recovery from heavy metal from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and fly ash.
Keywords: Fly ash, bottom ash, heavy metal, recovery
Recent Issues of Biodiversity in Japan
Global Biodiversity Strategy Office, Nature Conservation Bureau, Ministry of the Environment
The Convention on Biological Diversity was adopted in 1992. The 10th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP10) will be held in Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture in this October. In Japan, various measures are underway on biodiversity. For example, the Basic Act on Biodiversity of Japan enacted in 2008, and the National Biodiversity Strategy of Japan 2010 approved by Cabinet resolution in 2010. However, according to the Japan Biodiversity Outlook (JBO), which was released in 2010 as a report of comprehensive assessment of Biodiversity in Japan, Loss of biodiversity as a result of human activities in Japan has affected all ecosystems and the loss is continuing on the whole. After COP10, we will accelerate efforts to further the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.
Aerodynamic Characterization of Dryer Fabrics and Boundary Layer Air Flow in Paper Drying
Makoto Sumiyoshi and Yasumasa Takenouchi
Engineering Division, Shikishima Canvas Co., Ltd.
The function of a dryer section is to increase dryness of the wet paper sheet conveyed from a press section, to produce paper with required qualities, and to transfer it to the following process. It is generally understood that air flow is an important factor, affecting sheet dryness and thermal energy efficiency. Since paper machine speed has reached 2,000m/min, boundary layer air flow exerts critical influences on paper drying. We measured velocity of boundary layer air flow dragged by moving dryer fabrics. Samples of dryer fabrics with different characteristics were selected for our experiments. We will report and elucidate experimental results from pilot machines in selecting optimum fabrics, and will introduce several case studies on commercial paper machines from our experiences.
Keywords: air pumping action, dryer fabric, canvas self ventilation, visualization experiment, boundary layer, load of driving motors, air-cap dryer