2009N12@pZ
 
2009 December JAPAN TAPPI JOURNAL


Vol.63 No.12 Abstracts


The Trend of CO2 Emissions Trading

Akira Saito
Mizuho Information & Research Institute, Inc.
Environment, Natural Resources and Energy Division

  Kyoto credits (CER/ERU) can be used for participants of EU-ETS, Australian CPRS or Japanese Law Concerning the Promotion of the Measures to Cope with Global Warming, to achieve their own targets on greenhouse gas emissions. Before the end of 1st commitment period of Kyoto Protocol, until 2012, demand for Kyoto credit will exceed supply, although the demand-supply balance is under the control of AAU supply from Russia, Ukraine or eastern European countries. Kyoto credits before issue have several risks against non-delivery to buyers, so the price depends on the stage under the UN process and EUA (allowance of EU-ETS) price.


Status and Trend of Environmental Laws and Regulations

Shigenori Imamiya
Environmental Management Department,
Oji Paper Co., Ltd.

  Although many environmental laws and regulations have been enacted and put in force mainly to tighten the control since the 1990s, this trend could continue for the duration.
  The focus of attention to come in environmental laws and regulations could be placed on (a) energy saving and global warming curbing countermeasures, (b) the chemical substance management and (c) waste and recycling affairs. Especially, it is expected to introduce a drastic reform forWaste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law because there are some situations taking place, which interfere with adequate recycling.
  In this environmental seminar, the environmental laws and regulations are presented, which have been revised for the past several years and have to be watched closely.
  It can be said that for ensuring compliance to environmental laws and regulations, it is necessary to understand the purpose and outline of the laws and regulations, and raise the level of efforts.


Application of Environmental Hazard Map for Risk Management

Tamiharu Yamashita
Environmental Department, Takaoka Mill, Chuetsu Pulp & Paper Co., Ltd.


  In 2007, we had some environmental accidents continuously, and it caused uneasiness on neighbors. We made searching origin of accident, and improved environmental plants.
  But we had never searched environmental risk in whole mill. We could not expect what accidents would be caused. To recognize risk in Takaoka mill, we prepared environmental hazard map. Environmental hazard map shows us pending problem, and the way to environmental accident-free mill.


Progress and Trends in Treatment Technologies of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluents

Kazumasa Kamachi
Process Development Department, Process Research & Development Division,
EBARA ENGINEERING SERVICE CO., LTD.

  Pulp and paper mill effluents used to be treated with coagulation of sedimentation in the early days, but biological treatments such as activated sludge method have recently been installed for removing organic substances as the effluent regulation required higher effluent quality. These biological treatments have contributed to improvement of the effluent quality.
  We have developed new processes using bulking-free-process and fluidized-bed biofilm reactors, which have advantages on high-loaded treatments and easy maintenances, based on the accumulated knowledge about the characteristics of pulp and paper mill effluents. We here introduce state-of-the-art technologies, such as methane fermentation process, anaerobic ammonium oxidation process, and MAP (Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate) process for material recycling and high energy-efficiency.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, activated sludge method, methane fermentation, anaerobic ammonium oxidation, MAP, resource recovery, energy saving


Space Saving Wastewater Treatment System and the Water Recycling Technology

Atsushi Nakano
Engineering Dept. Environmental System Div.,
Sumitomo Heavy Industries Environment Co., Ltd.

  The wastewater treatment systems in the pulp and paper mill are usually required to reduce the space by using high efficiency technology. And recently, to reduce the water consumption the technology of water recycle is required. In this paper, the following technologies are introduced.
1) Sumi-Sludge® System-Space saving Activated sludge process
2) High FilterTM-High rate sand filter for White water recycling
3) Membrane Bio Reactor gMBRh-Activated sludge process using Submerged micro filter in the aeration tank

Keywords: Wastewater treatment, Activated Sludge Process, Coagulation and sedimentation, High rate Sand filter, Membrane bio reactor, MBR, Submerged membrane


Newly Developed Technologies for Environmental Load Reduction

Tamotsu Ushiyama, Toshihito Uchida and CHEN Jiayi
Kurita Water Industries Ltd.


  Though many efforts have been made for reduce the impact to environment, paper industries are still under a strong pressure from both authorities and government all over the world.
  Newly developed chemicals and their applications are introduced for treating sorts of COD sources. An effective monitoring system is helpful for stabilizing the treatment of sedimentation or flocculation. The definition of odor index and approach of solving the odor problems from water treatment plant and biomass-fuel yard are introduced.


International Trends in Effluent Regulation and Bioassays for Risk Assessment

Katsuyuki Kadota
Japan Pulp & Paper Research Institute, Inc.

  Various bioassays have been developed to assess the effects of chemicals and effluents on aquatic biota. Effluent regulations using the bioassays have been implemented in many countries mainly in Europe and North America, lead by pulp and paper industries. Great improvement has been made in acute and short-term effects of mill effluents following the process changes including installation of secondary treatment. Regulatory and research attentions will focus on long-term outcome of effluents with regard to the preservation of ecosystem and biodiversity. In this seminar, international trends in effluent regulations and bioassay tools are discussed. Research activities at Japan Pulp & Paper Research Institute, particularly DNA microarray and biosensor, will also be described.

Keywords: bioassay, effluent regulation, risk assessment, biodiversity, biosensor, DNA microarray


Olfactory Organs and Trends in the Environmental Administration

Yasukazu Tominaga
Manager, East AreaCDai-ichi Clean Chemical, Inc.

  Olfactory perception, or whether an odor is perceived as desirable or undesirable, largely depends on a sense of each person; many studies have shown that performance of olfactory organs vary with each individual. Although the mechanism of olfactory perception system has not yet been completely explained, it is gradually being revealed: Linda B. Buck and Richard Axel, who were awarded the Nobel Prize in 2004, found some specific genes that are connected to olfactory reception, while some other studies are tackling the issue from the gustatory sensation aspect.
  In the recent years, in response to the increase of odor complaints, odor control enactment is increasing in Japan primarily from manufacturing plants in the secondary industries. As the Japan Offensive Odor Control Act develops, the basis of the regulation shifted from the malodorous component control to olfactory measurement (sensory evaluation; odor index): By the end of March 2008 total 351 local governments, which is 26.9% of total areas which are subject to regulation, introduced the odor index system.
  The Japan Ministry of Environment and the Association on Odor Environment are working for improving the odor environment, not only by preventing undesired odors but also by means of a new, citizen-driven way of town planning, utilizing senses of temperature, light, odor and sound of the inhabitants. It is expected that the tertiary industries or service industries will be subject to odor regulations by local governments in the future, like Yokohama and Kobe, and this tendency will surely have a big impact on the future town planning.

Keywords: Offensive Odor Control Act, odor index


The Available Utilization of the Paper Sludge Ash

Yukio Tani
Pulp & Paper Research Laboratory, Oji Paper Co., Ltd.

  By the 2010, Japan paper association aim to decrease the last dumping volume of waste materials less than 450,000 ton/year, and to increase the available utilization ratio of waste materials more than 93%. In the pulp and paper industry, most of the last dumping volume in waste materials is the burning ash. Even now, the paper sludge ash is the most volume of the burning ash. We must increase the available utilization volume of waste materials to decrease the last dumping volume. In this paper, it is introduced the available way of the paper sludge ash.


Environmental Movements for Citizen and Children in Japan

Kunihiko Takeda
Chubu University

  The present environmental condition of Japan is not as bad as it should be the subject of important social concern. The statistics on air, water, medical hazards and number of patients by environmental pollutions are in one of the best levels in the world. Nevertheless, environmental concerns are everydayfs topics. It is because our environment may become worse in the future.
  As we are a member of citizens of the world, we have to do our best to maintain global environment. At the same time, I am a member of the Japanese nation, and also a member of Nagoya citizens as I live in Nagoya. Therefore, I have to act as one of faithful Nagoya citizens in my first obligation. With that view point, I subtitle my speech What do we have to do, and for whom should it be?


A Report on 2009 International Conference on Nanotechnology for the Forest Products Industry

Shiho Katsukawa
Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd., Pulp and Paper Research Laboratory

  2009 International Conference on Nanotechnology for the Forest Products Industry was held for four days, 23-26 June, in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It was consist of 15sessions with 45 presentations and 4 panel discussions, and poster sessions. There were 180 participants from 12 countries. In this report, several interesting presentations mainly about cellulose nanotechnology are picked up and briefly summarized.


How Technological Innovations Changed Newsprint and Its Making Process
-Survey on Technological Developments in Newsprint Production in Japan (Part V)-

Kiyoaki Iida
Senior researcher in 2007, Center of the History of Japanese Industrial Technology, National
Museum of Nature and Science, Executive Director emeritus, JAPAN TAPPI

  Part one of the series presented a short history of pulp and paper industry, background of selecting the theme and introductory briefing on basic technologies. Part two presented how newsprint and the way of producing it have evolved in the past 60 years, along with fiber source exploitation in 60 years. Part three described how paper machine for new print production developed in the past 60 years. In Part four, the characteristics of technological development in Japan were discussed, and then were compared with those of other counties.
  One newsprint paper machine was installed in 1960 in Kushiro Mill of Nippon Paper Industries Co. The paper machine, which was one of the biggest sizes in the world at that time, is still in operation as a machine of medium size of the present standard, is running at the efficiency of the highest level, and is producing newsprint rolls of the best quality. In part five, the operational data of that paper machine during almost 50 years are presented as a case study showing how technologies were developed in newsprint production in Japan. Furthermore, those who worked with the machine from the start-up spoke on their experiences of operating it.
  Finally, the history of technological developments in newsprint production in Japan is summarized in charts.


Adsorption Ability of Albumin and Oleic acid on Hydroxyapatite Synthesized from Paper Sludge Ash (PS ash)

Satoru Fukugaichi
Ehime Institute of Industrial Technology
Naoto Matsue and Teruo Henmi
Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University

  PS ash contains large amount of calcium carbonate, which disturbs formation of zeolites from PS ash. As a result, it was difficult to synthesize zeolites from PS ash containing calcium carbonate.@We tried to synthesize both hydroxyapatite and zeolite from calcium carbonate and silica-alumina in PS ash in the one batch system, and to synthesize high purity hydroxyapatite from filtrate obtained to be dissolved PS ash with nitric acid. Prepared hydroxyapatite from PS ash was subjected to adsorption examinations of albumin and oleic acid. It was revealed that higher Ca/P mol ratio and large specific surface area of hydroxyapatite were effective for adsorption of albumin and oleic acid on hydroxyapatite respectively.

Keywords: PS ash, Hydroxyapatite, adsorption, albumin, oleic acid