|JAPAN TAPPI JOURNAL Vol.61
December 2007 Abstracts
New International Approaches for Chemicals Management
- REACH, GHS -
Hitachi, Ltd., Environmental Corporate Policy Div.
Global approaches for new chemicals management in
the perspective of legislation on "environmental product policy"
REACH, a recently introduced EU chemicals policy, is obviously
a typical example and a main topic dealt with in this lecture.
This approach is featured by the two distinguished issues; one
is "wide scope of registration/notification" and the other is "supply-chain
obligation". In particular the latter issue should be strongly
cautioned by industries since companies in EU seem to be much more
advantageous than those in Japan. This presentation also points
out that even Japanese companies doing business only domestically
are very much likely to be affected by this law. Best strategies
for Japanese industries are proposed as well as relevant movements
already observed worldwide.
Statistical Survey on Industrial Wastes Generation and Its Utilization
in Pulp and Paper Mills in Japan
Environmental Technology, Japan Paper Association
Japan Paper Association
and JAPAN TAPPI investigate industrial waste for the member corporation
etc. every year, and have brought
the result together. The coverage is 87.7%, based on the paper
and paperboard production volume. The total amount of industrial
wastes generated in Japanese paper mills corresponds to about 11%
of their paper and paperboard production. (BD)
The recycled waste is 87.8% in B.D to the residue (after incineration
is processed, etc).
The wastes finally disposed is 12.2% (in B.D) to the residue (after
incineration is processed, etc).
Plans to Carry out the Measures against Climate Change in Japan
Mizuho Information & Research Institute, Inc.
Environment, Natural Resources and Energy Division
Before the first
commitment period (2008-2012) of the Kyoto Protocol, the Government
is assessing the Kyoto Protocol Target Achievement
Plan to revise until next March. It is certain that many Kyoto
credits will be necessary for the compliance of Kyoto Targets of
Japan. For the procurement of Kyoto credits, the balance between
supply and demand should be taken into consideration, and it may
not be probable to become oversupply in the Kyoto market for the
time being. Moreover, it is necessary for Japan and Japanese companies
to make out mid and long-term plans against climate change.
Status and Trend of Environmental Laws and Regulations
Environmental Management Department, Oji paper Co., Ltd.
many environmental laws and regulations have been enacted and put
in force mainly to tighten the control since the 1990s,
this trend could continue for the duration.
The focus of attention to come in environmental laws and regulations
could be placed on (a) energy saving and global warming curbing
countermeasures, (b) the chemical substance management and (c)
waste and recycling affairs. Especially, it is expected to introduce
a drastic reform for "Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing
Law" because there are some situations taking place, which
interfere with adequate recycling.
In this environmental seminar, the environmental laws and regulations
are presented, which have been revised for the past several years
and have to be watched closely.
It can be said that for ensuring compliance to environmental
laws and regulations, it is necessary to understand the purpose
and outline of the laws and regulations, and raise the level of
The Environmental Policy in China
Asia Group, Keidanren
The China's Industrial policy including foreign
investment has already changed into environmentally friendly one,
environmental problems are mounting.
China's rapid development has become an environmental disaster. Water pollution
and water scarcity are burdening the economy, rising level of air pollution
are endangering the health of Chinese people, and much of the country's land
is rapidly turning into desert.
High economic growth necessarily requires the huge consumption of resources,
but in China energy use has been especially unclean and inefficient, with serious
consequences for the country's air, land and water. Although per capita GDP
in China is still 2000 dollars, China is already attracting international attention
for its rapid growing contribution to climate change.
Challenges for GHG Reduction in Steel Industry
Nippon Steel Corporation
Steel industry of Japan has enthusiastically
challenged in energy saving since the oil crisis in 1970's, and
reached to the world
top level in energy efficiency. Energy saving methods of Japanese
steel industry are categorized into I) process innovation, II)
process optimization, III) effective use of byproduct gases, IV)
waste heat (energy) recovery, and V) utilization of wastes in the
iron & steel making processes. Waste plastics and waste tires
have started to be used in iron and steel making process to reduce
In addition, R&D projects for further process are actively carried out.
In the field of process innovation, after a long R&D stage, the advanced
coke oven (SCOPE-21 is now on the horizon. For realization of a social system
based on hydrogen, coke oven gas is expected as a potential resource of hydrogen
supply for fuel cells, and demonstration programs are carried out. In order
to realize global warming protection with simultaneous fossil fuel consumption,
technologies for CO2 capturing from blast furnace gas are intentionally investigated
as a national R&D project.
Recent economic growth of developing countries, especially China, is bringing
a rapid expansion of steel production and related increase in consumption of
raw materials and energy, and huge amount of GHG emission. Therefore, improvements
of energy efficiency of steel sector of developing countries are very important
not only for future shortage of natural resources but also for global warming
Among many challenges by steel industry, contributions through supplying steel
products with high performances and use of byproducts in the society are the
most important for our better life with protecting global warming and resource
Bioethanol: Today and Tomorrow
Microbiology Research Group
Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE)
the standpoints of preventing global warming and bracing for the
expected exhaustion of fossil fuel resources, worldwide
attention is currently focused on bioethanol. In the U.S., development
of new technologies is a strongly promoted national policy, leading
to a drastic increase in the production of bioethanol. However,
feedstocks for current ethanol production processes comprise food
crops, the supply of which will be increasingly constrained. Therefore,
there is a pressing need to utilize "soft-biomass", obtained
from non-food biomass as well as inedible parts of food crops,
as demand for ethanol increases. The RITE-bioprocess is based on
a new concept that fundamentally resolved the technological problems
of bioethanol production from soft-biomass.
The Latest Information on RPF and C-RPF, the Next-generation Technology
RPF Planning and Developing Dept., SEKI-SHOUTEN CO., LTD.
Paper & Plastic Fuel" is a fuel provided in
solid form using non-reclaimable used paper and plastic waste as
its staple materials. The use of RPF is increasingly receiving
high marks from mainly paper industry as an alternative to fossil
fuels, due to its superiorities such as fuel quality, costs and
environmentally mild impacts. This report features RPF properties,
market demand and related information on the latest activities
making conformance of RPF to JIS requirements or ensuing action
toward legal revisions, and also introduces a new technology C-RPF,
consisted mainly of charcoal and plastic waste. This charcoal,
called "Char", is produced through a process of carbonizing kitchen
garbage (combustible trash). C-RPF can be substantially substituted
for coal as well as RPF and can contribute to reduce green house
gas emission by curtailing fossil fuel use. Therefore, C-RPF has
high expectations as one of the powerful way for recycling domestic
waste which has been being collected and combusted by local governments.
Ash Treatment Technology and Reuse Technology by Ash Melting System
Environmental & Recycling Plant Engineering & Design Dept.,
JFE Environmental Solutions Corporation
This paper explained ash
treatment technology and reuse technology which are developed in
the MSW [municipal solid waste] incineration
process. Next, new melting process of MSW incinerator ash was introduced,
and then new reuse technology of slag produced by MSW-melting process
Keywords: Ash, Melting Process, Slag, Reuse, Municipal Solid Waste
Waste Paper Collection: Present Business and Problems
Kurihara Shizai Co., Ltd.
Recently articles on waste paper appear
in newspapers. The fact that the price of waste paper increased
by 30% in a year attracted
an attention in the economic situation in which most goods were
suffering in deflation for these three years. As the waste paper
price increased, growing numbers of newcomers joined in the waste
paper business. Some of them took away illegally waste paper deposited
at depots where local governments and municipal unions organized
for collection. To counter the illegal take-away, many local governments
established penal regulations.
I will introduce how the present business is going from the standpoints
of collection, consumption, price and international market.
A Diagnosis System and Service of Activated Sludge Treatment
Ogawa Environmental Research Institute, Inc.
Nowadays the computer
technology is widely used in the manufacturing processes for controlling
the quality of products and production
lines. However, the application of computer technology is not well
developed in the field of waste water treatment process. For example,
most of facilities of Activated Sludge Treatment (AST) are operated
based on the operator's experience, although the basic operation
procedure is well known.
The main reasons why the AST is not operated systematically are as followed:
1) The decomposing ability of BOD component by AS (that is, an activity of
AS) in the aeration tank is not evaluated quantitatively in real time.
2) The instrument / equipment to measure promptly and continuously the BOD
value of raw waste water and its decomposing rate is not available.
I introduce here the method and the computer aided instrument / equipment to
easily and promptly measure and monitor the following two indicators of "the
activity of AS in the aeration tank" and "the decomposing rate of BOD component
in the feed waste water". Moreover, I show that the performance of AST is analyzed
quantitatively by using these two indicators.
Keywords: activity of Activated
Sludge Treatment, decomposing rate of BOD component, decomposing ability of
Quantitative Analysis of Hydrogen Peroxide by High Performance
Kengo Magara, Tsutomu Ikeda, Tomoko Sugimoto
and Shuji Hosoya
Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute
is generally determined by an iodometric titration method. This
method is determining the oxidation-ability of a sample
solution. If any compounds that have oxidation-ability toward iodide
are involved in the sample solution, the oxidation-ability of those
compounds will be counted as a part of hydrogen peroxide. Accordingly,
when the reaction mechanisms of oxygen or ozone bleaching are investigated
using model compounds, the drawback become serious. Because some
of the compounds formed during the bleaching may have oxidation-ability
and be still kept in the reaction mixture after the bleaching.
The method is, therefore, required to separate hydrogen peroxide
from some compounds having oxidation-ability and to determine the
accurate amount of hydrogen peroxide.
To satisfy these requirements, chromatographic determination of
hydrogen peroxide was investigated using high performance liquid
chromatography (HPLC). Hydrogen peroxide was reported to be separated
by a ligand exchange type column in which a sulfonated polystylene/divinyl
benzene cation-exchange resin was packed1).
In our report, the analytical conditions to determine hydrogen
peroxide were investigated using the reported column. The column
body made with stainless steal resulted in the decomposition of
hydrogen peroxide during the separation. This drawback was improved
by the addition of EDTA in the eluent. The detection of hydrogen
peroxide was accomplished by an electrochemical detector (ECD)
with a platinum electrode (+0.45 V of voltammetric charge toward
a reference electrode). When the highly acidic or alkaline samples
were injected to the column, the separated acid or base would remove
a coating by oxidized substrates on the electrode resulting in
the disorder of a baseline, because the current between a working
and a counter electrode changes suddenly. Therefore, sufficiently
buffered solution was needed as an eluent of HPLC-ECD.
hydrogen peroxide, high performance liquid chromatography, EDTA
Changes of Pulp Properties by Recycling
- Effects of Alkaline Soaking -
Pulp & Paper Research Lab., Oji Paper CO., Ltd.
Many works concerning
to recycling of paper have suggested that the recycling decreases
pulp strengths and optical properties.
In these studies, the recycling procedure only consists of repeated
treatment such as pulping, drying and re-pulping.
However, actual deinking process usually has a soaking process
which is carried out with alkaline chemicals such as sodium hydroxide
and hydrogen peroxide.
In this paper, we show the significance of the soaking in the deinking
process. For hardwood bleached kraft pulp, the soaking with alkaline
chemicals affects negative inferences to pulp strengths, however,
the soaking with hydrogen peroxide affects positive inferences.
On the other hand, the soaking has a little influence on the TMP
properties except optical properties.
Keywords: Recycling, Deinking, Alkaline chemicals, Hydrogen peroxide,