|JAPAN TAPPI JOURNAL Vol.61
Perspective and Current Research
Trend of Pulping Research
Wood Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Biomaterial Sciences, The University
By a wide survey of inhomogeneity of lignin structure, a certain
tendency was found among characteristic factors of lignin structure. Generally,
when a certain tree species has lower lignin content, its lignin is richer in -O-4
structure, especially of erythro type, and, sryringyl type of aromatics. Interestingly,
these characteristics are thought to be favorable for delignification reactions
during pulping and bleaching. This result suggests the importance of the analysis
of lignin structure for the survey of suitable woods for pulping.
The Influence of Pulp on the Printability
Research Development Div., Pulp & Paper Research Laboratory, Oji Paper
When paper is treated as a communicative function, it does print
to the paper and the first time additional value occurs. Then, the paper does
have a commercial value in the market. In this paper, required properties of
pulp on printing are discussed when irradiating pulp reverse from the view point
of the print and looking at it. In the case of printability, there are print
runability and print quality. These properties aren't always compatible, and
become the request to be often disagreed with by.
On printing, the shade of the image is resolved into halftone-dots
and the image is expressed as the continuous aggregate of dots. The principle
is the same even if the different printing method by plate is taken. Therefore,
so-called "Dot-reproducibility" is very important to perform better printability,
since the print quality is increased by how much a dot is precisely reproduced
on the substance in printing. In any printing methods, the smoothness is indispensable
for this dot-reproducibility, and pulp is also required to produce good smoothness.
In addition to smoothness, surface strength, internal strength, tensile strength,
appropriate shrinkage and cutting property (amount of paper powder) are requested
on pulp to ensure good printability, e.g. picking, piling, blistering, folding
fracture, and print fluting and so on.
Understanding the problems of final printed products becomes an important
point when discussing the quality of the pulp as an intermediate-product. It
is considered that printability of pulp also becomes one of the big guideposts
in studies and developments of pulp in the future.
Keywords: printability, halftone-dot reproducibility, smoothness, pulp
Effect of Pulp Quality on Printability(II)
Pulp and Paper Research Laboratory, R&D Division, Nippon Paper Industries
Production of coated paper has been increased since it was invented.
Bitoko grade is one of the staple commodities of coated paper and the characteristic
is the paper containing mechanical pulp. Because bitoko grade paper is mostly
printed by rotary offset press with heat-set ink, it is necessary to withstand
printing problems like heat-set roughening, blistering and so on. Heat-set roughening
is roughening at solid area of printed matter due to rising of fibers. Paper
absorbs fountain solution during printing and the fibers are released from out-of-plane
stress. Then the shape of the fibers changes from collapsed state to tubular
at drying process of the press, and the fibers rise. Mainly, the long fibers
of mechanical pulp, especially which cell wall is thick, cause this problem.
The effect of pulp is greater than coating conditions such as pre-calendering,
coating weight and so forth. Therefore it is quite important to control pulp
quality for the better printability.
Current Trend in Mechanical Pulping
Metso Fiber KK
Even there is no movement of new mechanical pulp project in Japan,
capacity of mechanical pulp manufacture is still increasing in the world. As
main driving force of this movement, cost reduction has been done by various
methods; fewer and larger production units with bigger equipment, process to
get lower cost and higher quality, low energy segment and etc.
Even in the existing plants, Metso is working to improve them. One
key equipment is mechanical steam separator to improve fiber loss and retention
time between two refiners. Adjustable gap sensor instead of conventional TDC
sensor is also available now.
The Design Concept of the Saving Energy for OCC Screening System
Research & Development Dept., Voith IHI Paper Technology Co., Ltd.
Customers' trials of stock preparation conducted by the VIPT's Technology
Center were, except large-scale pilot equipment, mainly performance tests and
single process simulation of the single equipment until around 1988. However,
recent test mainstream, in the both paperboard and paper fields, turn to be the
test to verify the improvement of quality deteriorated by change of raw material
quality, improvement of productivity, reduction of production cost, and quality
improvement required by end users.
Regarding quality test, customers are more concerned about detailed
areas such as adhesive-related contaminants, dirt and flake than in the past.
Therefore, highly technological systems optimizing a single equipment performance
are strongly being required by customers.
Customer requirement for high quality product being more and more
intensified and the difficulty in recycling of waste paper being expected, we
need to enhance our technology to be able to respond to these changes of industry's
situation. Additionally, in order to develop the "Post-Recycle 60", we VIPT are
willingly ready to cooperate with this trend.
This time we would like to introduce our development concept of OCC
Screening System with the focus on achieving energy saving and quality improvement
at the same time.
Technical Tasks & Solutions for Improvement of Recycled Pulp Rate
Technical & Engineering Dept., Aikawa Iron Works Co., Ltd.
The increasing target of domestic wastepaper recycling rate to 60%
by the end of 2005 had been achieved 2 years ahead by a result of great effort
of various quarters. And today, "increasing the paper recycling rate to
62% by the end of 2010" had been set as a new goal again. About 630,000t
per year wastepaper usage increase is a condition for this new target realization.
Because of the wastepaper recycling rate for board-paper is already
more than 90%, increasing of fine wastepaper recycling rate is needed for the
62% target realization. But, the reality is that there is almost no high quality
fine wastepaper remain. In addition, in the booming China the low exactly sorted
US wastepaper is avoided, the Japanese wastepaper exporting became regular and
domestic wastepaper itself is exhausting rapidly.
Innovation and reform in various fields is necessary to achieve recycling
rate 62% under such strict situation. In this seminar, I will show the technical
tasks and the solutions of efficient use of low quality wastepaper in the stock
preparation process that is Aikawa's field.
Keywords: 62% Wastepaper Recycling Rate, Chinese Pulp & Paper Industry,
Exporting, Wastepaper Stock Exhaustion, Efficient Use of Low Quality
Stock, Improvement of Recycle Pulp Rate
KP Kiln Dam Ring Preventive Agent
Shizuoka 1st Sec, Techno Chemical Div., Thaihokohzai Co., Ltd.
In the causticizing process, the operation for kiln often requires
continuous stability, but the operation is stopped by compulsion due to rapid
development of dam ring in some cases.
The dam ring is produced in the following manner: Low-melting alkali impurities
such as sodium are supplied together with mud as a core from the kiln end
and the low-melting substance exposed to high-temperature gas is made viscous
to loosely bind the cores. Then, loose binding moved away from the high-temperature
gas under the continuous supply of the mud changes into hard binding in
the coating due to temperature decrease or re-carbonation. These reactions
continuously work resulting in the formation of a large dam.
Our company, long engaged in producing and selling fuel additives,
tried relatively simple countermeasures through chemical addition against the
dam ring and has proven many achievements. The details of our actual results
are explained in this book.
The Impact of Elemental Chlorine Free Bleaching on Effluent Characteristics
Research Department, Japan Pulp and Paper Research Institute, Inc.
The amendment of Air Pollution Control Law that required pulp and
paper mills to reduce discharge of chloroform was promulgated in 1996. Since
then, Japanese pulp and paper companies have gradually been introducing elemental
chlorine free (ECF) bleaching. In 2006, the production of ECF pulps exceeded
80 percent of Japanese bleached chemical pulp production.
Generations of chloroform, chlorinated phenolic compounds, and chlorinated
dioxins were decreased dramatically with ECF bleaching. The AOX level in ECF
bleaching mill effluent was less than 0.2kg per ton of bleached pulp. On the
contrary, chlorate discharges were increased with chlorine dioxide bleaching.
Whether ECF conversion decreases the adverse effects of mill effluents
on aquatic organisms is evaluating in Japan Pulp and Paper Research Institute.
It can be concluded that misgivings about the discharge of organic
chlorine compounds from Japanese pulp and paper mills were practically eliminated
by ECF conversion.
Keywords: Elemental Chlorine Free Bleaching (ECF), Chloroform, Dioxin,
Overview of Elementary Chlorine Free Bleaching
Technology Division, Oji Paper Co., Ltd.
In order to reduce environmental impact, chlorine bleaching process
has been converted to ECF bleaching, in Japan, following North Europe and North
America. Oji Paper Group, according to Environmental Charter Action Guidelines,
planned to convert kraft pulp (KP) bleaching process to ECF bleaching. Hardwood
bleaching system at Kasugai Mill was converted in August 2000, followed by other
domestic mills. All the 8 mills of our group has been completed conversion in
Oji Paper Group invested 1.6 billion yen for the conversion of all
the 8 mills, where bleaching towers were rebuilt, and other equipments were renovated
including the one for chemical production. In this presentation, details of the
investment are reported, taking Kushiro LBKP bleaching process as an example.
Conversion to ECF bleaching results in the increase of manufacturing
costs, but keeps quality of bleached pulp and stabilizes operation, without any
Technical Problems and their Measures for ECF Bleaching
Hachinohe Mill, Mitsubishi Paper Mills Limited
In Hachinohe mill of Mitsubishi Paper Mills Limited, the bleached
kraft pulp (BKP) line named "3BKP" was switched to an elementary chlorine free
(ECF) bleaching in October 2000, and "2BKP" was switched to the ECF bleaching
in August 2005.
It was found that there were some differences as to bleaching behaviors
between the ECF bleaching whose first stage was chlorine dioxide and a conventional
chlorine bleaching. For example, the ECF bleaching was more susceptible to a
brightness of oxygen-delignified pulp than the conventional one. Emissions of
adsorbable organic halogen and of chloroform were decreased by introducing the
ECF bleaching. Thus, environmental targets were achieved. However, technical
problems as to the ECF bleaching operation and a pulp quality newly occurred.
These problems were an increased bleaching cost, calcium oxalate scales on diffuser
screen and a discoloration of pulps and so on. Measures to hexenuronic acid which
is deeply related to the problems have to be pursued for a fundamental solution
to the problems.
This paper described in regard to characteristics of the ECF bleaching,
the technical problems and their measures that became apparent through the ECF
Keywords: ECF bleaching, Chlorine bleaching, Bleaching cost, Calcium oxalate
of pulp, Hexenuronic acid
Problems and Measures in ECF Bleaching Operation
Technical Division, Kishu Paper Co., Ltd.
Kishu mill, Kishu Paper fiber line was converted to ECF bleaching
sequence in August 2004. This plant was introduced to the hot chlorine dioxide
process (DUAL-D), and this bleaching sequence has D*(i)-EP-D.
Also D*stage tower was adopted the gravity
feed system (Difeed system) with the first installation in the world.
The scale adhesion of some places is enumerated as a problem in current
ECF operation. Continuous operation is possible now by the removal of the scale
by a high-pressure washing and the acid washing when a biannual regular repair.
The D*stage is effective as color reversion. However,
temperature conditions are changed from 90 planned at first because the amount
of the steam use is large to 85 now and the amount of the steam use has been
(i):D* notes hot chlorine dioxide stage
The Recent Activities of ECF Bleaching
Production Dept. of Technical & Engineering Div., Nippon Paper Industries
Elementary Chlorine Free (ECF) bleaching, the bleaching method with
no chlorine gas, has now become global standard. With the raising concern over
environmental issue and to meet the demand from consumers, ECF bleaching is rapidly
spreading among Japanese paper industries as well.
In accordance with the Nippon Paper Group's Environment Charter (established
in 1993), Nippon Paper Industries has been keenly engaged in sustainable business
activities that are in harmony with nature. Conversion of all bleaching lines
to ECF is one of such activities.
When installing ECF bleaching, Nippon Paper Industries pioneered
in introducing new technologies such as ozone bleaching and hot acid treatment
in Japan. In this report details of NPI's introduction of those new technologies
in ECF bleaching are presented.
Keywords: Kraft pulp, ECF bleaching
Measurement of the Elastic Modulus of Paperboard from the Low-Frequency
Vibration Modes of Rectangular Plates
Jun Sato and Ian M. Hutchings
Institute for Manufacturing, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge
Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge
Static methods (e.g. tensile testing) and ultrasonic methods have
been most commonly used in the past to measure the elastic modulus of paper and
paperboard. The static method, however, does not provide a dynamic value for
modulus, and the accurate measurement of travel-time needed for the ultrasonic
method is rather delicate and prone to error. A further problem is that the timescale
(or frequency) involved in these methods is often far removed from the actual
conditions experienced in the paper industry and in applications of these materials.
A method using low frequency vibrations to excite out-of-plane bending vibrations,
which are visualised as Chladni figures, might appear to be simple and unsophisticated,
but can readily be applied to paper and paperboards in the frequency range from
10 to 1000 Hz. Characteristic patterns are generated on rectangular or square
samples at each resonant frequency. From the assumption that machine-made paper
is generally orthotropic and that the boundaries are free, values of dynamic
Young's modulus and dynamic Poisson's ratio can be calculated by identifying
only a few low-frequency modes.
Values of dynamic Young's modulus derived by this method for various
core-board samples are lower than those obtained from ultrasonic measurements,
which is consistent with a model for viscoelastic behaviour in which elastic
modulus depends on frequency. Dynamic Poisson's ratios in the machine direction
and cross direction are also derived with high reproducibility. The vibration
frequencies required to excite the modes depend on the sample sizes, but no significant
differences in elastic moduli were seen for samples with sizes ranging from 75
x 75 to 200 x 200 mm; the main restriction of the method is that the sample should
be reasonably flat.
The sensitivity of the vibration method is demonstrated by the reduction
in stiffness of paper which can be detected when its surface is scratched or
damaged; detection of such damage by ultrasonic measurements is much more difficult.
It is suggested that the vibration method using Chladni patterns is well suited
to the accurate and reliable measurement of the dynamic elastic constants of
the paper/paper board, at frequencies appropriate to the processing and use of
these materials. The elastic constants obtained by this method may be useful
within the paper industry for product and process design.
Keywords: paper, paperboard, vibrational modes, Chladni patterns, Young's
ratio, elastic constants, Rayleigh's principle
Relations between Elastic Bending Deformation Strength, Shape and Elastic
Moduli for Case of Anisotropic Corrugated Fiberboard Box Shape (Square
Tube) under Uniform Compression
Ehime University, Center for Cooperative Research and Development
Professor Emeritus, Ehime University
Elastic bending deformation analysis for case of anisotropic corrugated
fiberboard box shape (square tube: width L, height h and thickness T=5.54mm)
under uniform compression (-0.10N/mm2) on upper and lower edges was
performed. And characteristic behavior of stress and deflection for its case
Absolute maximum normal stress bxmax* in
the width direction is at plate centers, and maximum normal stress bymax in
the height direction, maximum bending principal stress b0max and
maximum deflection wmax are at centers of side edges for side plate
(L=350, h=300mm). Absolute maximum bending shear stress bxymax* and
maximum bending principal shear stress b0max* are
plate corners. bxmax*, bymax,bxymax* and
wmax increase and decrease with L increase. And bxmax* and
wmax increase and decrease, and bymax and bxymax* increase
with h increase. bxmax*, bymax,bxymax* and
wmax increase with Ex increase and decrease with Ey increase. bxmax* and bymax increase,
and bxymax* and
wmax increase and decrease with xy increase.
Key Words: Structural Analysis, Computational Mechanics, Elastic Strength
Elastic Stress Analysis Structural Strength, Numerical Analysis