|Green Policy in China
Asia Group, Nippon Keidanren
China is facing an increasingly polluted environment severe shortages
of potable water and declining availability of arable land. As a
consequence, Chinese government is now taking a series of measures
to protect the environment. These measures, called green policy,
are formulated and executed by two governmental ministries. One is
the National Development and Reform Commission, who is responsible
for controlling the material flow. The other is the State Environmental
Protection Administration, who is promoting participation from the
civil society for protecting the environment.
Recent Development of Water Environment Policy : Area-wide
Total Water Pollutant Load Control Scheme for Enclosed
Coastal Seas in Japan
Office of Environmental Management of Enclosed Coastal Seas,
Environmental Management Bureau, Ministry of the Environment
The Are-wide total water pollutant load control system has been
implemented under national legislation including the Water Pollution
Control Law for the Tokyo Bay, the Ise Bay and the Seto Inland
Sea, where the population and industrial activities are highly
concentrated along extensive enclosed coastal sea areas. As a result,
pollutant load has been steadily decreased in these areas.
As for the current status of the water environment in these sea
areas, achievement ratios of the Environment Quality Standards
are not sufficient, although the water quality has been clearly
improved in the Tokyo Bay.
In the Tokyo Bay, Ise Bay and the Osaka Bay, actual adverse effects
are occurring, such as large-scale oxygen-deficient water mass.
As for the Seto Inland Sea (excluding the Osaka Bay), the occurrence
of the oxygen-deficient water mass is limited, and the water quality
is better than other sea areas.
Based on these situations, the Central Environment Council submitted
a report to the Minister of the Environment on May 18, 2005, entitled
"Basic Direction of the 6th Total Water Pollutant Load Control
Scheme". In this report, the council recommended that it is necessary
to further reduce the pollutant load in the Tokyo Bay, Ise Bay
and Osaka Bay, while continuing existing measures for the Ise Inland
Sea (excluding Osaka Bay) to maintain the present water quality.
The council report also suggested issues to be further addressed,
including the consideration of targets for the water quality and
methods of evaluation of these targets. The Ministry of the Environment
is in the way to consider these issues under "extensive review
of the framework of the water environment".
Current Situation Surrounding Industrial Waste Disposal in Chiba
Chiba Prefecture, Environment and Life Division, Industrial Waste
In Chiba Prefecture, about 40% of the amount of illegal disposal
in the whole country concentrated in the 1999 fiscal year, and
it became a dishonorable result in which nationwide worst one for
three years after that.
The wastes by which illegal abandonment was carried out are the
sulfuric acid pitch, the tree waste generated with demolition of
a building, construction sludge, construction surplus soil, etc.
For this reason, in Chiba Prefecture, measures, such as strengthening
of the surveillance by a green action team etc., installation of
the environmental criminal division in the Chiba Prefectural Police,
and original regulations establishment of Chiba Prefecture, were
taken as illegal abandonment preventive measures, and illegal abandonment
has been tackled.
In the 2004 fiscal year, the amount of illegal abandonment decreased
to 1/20 of the year of a peak as a result of this measure. However,
the amount of survival of the waste with which illegal abandonment
of the end of the 2004 fiscal year was carried out amounts also
to about 3,900,000t.
Therefore, in Chiba Prefecture, motion of removal measure command
to a contractor and promotion of the removal and processing by
administrative subrogation are tackled.
Rules of a Risk Communications in Solution of Soil Contamination
Environmental Solution Headquarters, KOKUSAI KOGYO CO., Ltd.
After the enforcement of the Soil Contamination Measures Law,
a soil investigation usually has been conducted all around the
in an occasion of a land trading, and the number of contaminated
sites which is recognized has been increased rapidly. However the
awareness of soil contamination is arisen in the society, only
the negative information about soil contamination such as damage
to the human health or decreasing land price is spread and the
enlightenment of appropriate information is not given enough. As
a result, many cases that a contamination is recognized fall in
to trouble because the anxiety of people who face to a contamination
is large and the understandings of a contamination between the
stakeholders such as polluter, land buyer and neighborhood are
different. Therefore in this problem, the importance of making
the base for a solution by getting common understandings about
contaminations between the stakeholders known as risk communication
This report introduces the roles of a risk communication that
took part in the solution to the soil contamination problem and
some notices for proceeding risk communication based on the experience
of soil and groundwater contamination cases which the writer faced.
The Regulatory Framework for Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent in North
America and Europe
Research Department, Japan Pulp and Paper Research Institute, Inc.
In the United States, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System (NPDES) of the Clean Water Act is the permitting system
to control water pollution. This system consists of both chemical
and biological method for the assessment and the reduction of toxic
discharges. The Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards (1998)
set discharge limits for dioxins, chlorinated phenolics, chloroform,
TSS, BOD and AOX. EPA is developing options to encourage effluent
trading for NPDES permittees.
In Canada, the Pulp and Paper Effluent Regulations (1992) under
the Fisheries Act set discharge limits for TSS and BOD, and prohibit
the discharge of effluents that are acutely lethal to rainbow trout.
As well, mills are required to conduct Environmental Effect Monitoring
The Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive of 1996
is a set of common rules on permitting for industrial installations
in the EU countries. The permits must be based on best available
techniques (BAT). The Reference Document on BAT in the pulp and
paper industry set emission levels of TSS, COD, BOD, AOX, total
nitrogen and total phosphorus to water. The waste water tax scheme
has been widely adopted in EU member countries to improve water
Status and Trend of Environmental Laws and Regulations
Environmental Management Department, Oji paper Co., Ltd.
Although many environmental laws and regulations have been enacted
and put in force mainly to tighten the control since the 1990s,
this trend could continue for the duration.
The focus of attention to come in environmental laws and regulations
could be placed on (a) energy saving and global warming curbing
countermeasures, (b) waste and recycling affairs and (c) the chemical
substance management. Especially, it is expected to introduce a
drastic reform for "Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law" because
there are some situations taking place, which interfere with adequate
In this environmental seminar, the environmental laws and regulations
are presented, which have been revised for the past several years
and have to be watched closely.
It can be said that for ensuring compliance to environmental laws
and regulations, it is necessary to understand the purpose and
outline of the laws and regulations, and raise the level of efforts.
Technology for Total Chlorine-free Bleaching of Kraft Pulp
Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University
Acid treatment was developed for non-chlorine bleaching of an
oxygen-delignified hardwood kraft pulp. About 70% hexenuronic acid
in the kraft pulp
was removed after the acid treatment at pH3 for 1 hour at 105℃.
After full bleaching with the acid treatment (A) followed by the
ozone (Z) and the hydrogen peroxide (P), the final brightness of
the pulp reached approximately 85 %ISO, keeping the viscosity over
15.0 cP. Little hexenuronic acid existed in the kraft pulp after
this bleaching (A-Z-E-P). Furthermore, the brightness stability
of this pulp was much better than that of chlorine dioxide bleached
Keywords: Kraft pulp, Non-chlorine bleaching, Total chlorine-free
bleaching, Brightness, Hexenuronic acid
The Latest Environment Monitoring Technology for Drainage Water
and Emission Gas Utilized in Industrial Plant Factory
Hiroshi Mizutani and Katsuaki Ogura
The environmental pollution issue being recognized as social problem
in 1960s was local social issue, and the casualty was relatively
limited extent. However, the global environmental issue is currently
going through ecological crisis, and we have to consider how to
reduce the effects on the environment the world over. The challenges
accompanying in a business activity in environmental priority days
is to consider environmental issue.
Next year is the 40th anniversary of the enactment for fundamental
low of pollution in Japan. We outline in terms of steps in the
progress of monitoring technology related to environmental problem
and the latest environmental monitoring technology.
Analyzers for Effluent Gas and Waste Water
DKK-TOA CORPORATION, Sales Planning Dept.
Environmental pollution surely escaped from the worst state. But,
is not complete. Movement of environmental purification must be
continued. What primarily you must do will be grasp of the situation.
It will be necessary more and more in future to grasp the environmental
situation broadly more precisely. I introduce a trend about environmental
measurement and a way of thinking of an analyzer along it as follows.
Sound and Vibration - Measuring Instrumentation
RION Co., Ltd.
The environmental pollution issue of noise and vibration has relations
very much in our daily life. There are a lot of complaints concerning
the noise and the vibration in the complaint concerning pollution.
In this report, it introduces instruments to measure noise and
Introductions of the Environmental Measurement Devices of Shimadzu
with a Focus on Electronic nose "FF-2A"
Shimadzu Corporation, Analytical & Measuring Instruments Division
The present situations of the odor measurements are explained.
The principle of the electronic nose is presented. Some improvements
of the electronic nose toward the practical applications are shown.
One of the improvements is using the trap tube in order to avoid
humidity interferences and another is to use new analytical method
of sensor signals. Using new signal processing drives the absolute
values of odor intensity and odor characters. The odor continuous
monitoring of the black liquor's combustion furnace is explained
by using improved electronic nose.
Keywords: Electronic nose, trap tube, multivariate analysis,
odor characteristic measurement, Continuous measurement of odor
Operational Experience of the Recycle Boiler
Hachinohe Mill, Mitsubishi Paper Mills Limited
From the point of view of the global warming and the cost performance
of the fuel, the fuel conversion, from the fossil fuel to the biomass,
has recently been prompted among the pulp and paper industry in
Because the fuel conversion had been one of the most important
problems in Hachinohe mill for years, we decided to install the
waste boiler that used waste tires, waste wood and paper sludge
as fuel. At last we started the commercial operation of the waste
boiler in July 2004. Since then, the boiler has been working well.
As a result of the operation of this waste boiler, we were able
to reduce not only the energy cost but also the amount of the CO2
Sludge Dewatering Machine, Rotary Press Filter
-Dewatering of Paper Mill Sludge-
Application Development Section Process Engineering Department
Machinery & Equipment Division
TOMOE ENGINEERING CO., LTD.
Dewatering process is an important process to reduce and solidify
sludge, and people are asking for an effective machine. Further,
because of increased interests in the global warming due to CO2
emission, a machine with not only with good dewaterability but
also with low power consumption is desired. Rotary Press Filter
is a sludge dewatering machine with new structure that has been
introduced by Fournier Industries Inc. in Canada and is now being
manufactured and sold by Tomoe Engineering. In addition to its
features such as low power, simple structure, space saving, and
less wash water, this dewatering machine is suitable for the new
times in respect of maintenance and control. Since its introduction,
number of units installed has been increasing year by year. In
Japan we have installed 44 units for dewatering of sewage sludge,
plant wastewater sludge, etc. Among them, 11 units have been installed
for dewatering of papermaking wastewater sludge. In this report,
I will introduce Rotary Press Filter's performance and effect of
Biological Effects and Biomonitoring of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluents
- Research Topics up to Vitoria 2006 -
Hiroshi Araki, Reiji Kaneko and Akiko Nakamura
Japan Pulp and Paper Research Institute, Inc.
The 6th International Symposium on Environmental Fate and Effects
of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluents (Fate & Effects Symposium)
was held as "Vitoria 2006" on April 9-13 in Vitoria, Brazil. Since
1991, the Fate & Effects Symposium has played an important
roll as a place of discussion for researchers on aquatic organism's
response and toxicity associated with pulp and paper mill effluents.
Topics of the symposiums for 15years, including health assessment,
toxicity identification, bioaccumulation and hormonal activity,
are reviewed and the current of biological regulations (biomonitoring)
in EU and North America are discussed.
Keywords: Environmental Fate and Effects, Pulp and Paper Mill
Effluents, Aquatic Organism, Environmental Impact, Toxicity,
Bioaccumulation, Endocrine Disruption, Biomonitoring
Development of Manufacturing Process for High Quality Calcium Carbonate by
Causticizing Process in a Kraft Pulp Mill (Part1)
-Fundamental Study on the Controlling Method of Calcium Carbonate Morphology-
Yasunori Nanri, Haruo Konno and Hideyuki Goto
Pulp and Paper Research Laboratory, Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.
Gotsu Mill, Nippon Paper Chemicals Co., Ltd.
Causticizing step is a process to convert green liquor into white liquor
in kraft pulping mill, and this process also produces a precipitated calcium
carbonate as a by-product. If this causticizing calcium carbonate (CCC) could
be extracted from this step as paper making material, the lime-kiln operation
would be shortened or stopped; thus the consumption of fuel oil and the discharge
of CO2 gas can be reduced. However, the conventional CCC has serious problem
of lower brightness, higher wire abrasion and poor opacifying ability as paper
filler. Then, we challenged controlling the morphology of CCC like commercial
precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC). In this paper, slaking and causticizing
reactions were separated and precisely controlled, and then various shapes
of CCC with high opacifying ability and little wire abrasion could be successfully
Keywords: Causticizing Reaction, Precipitated Calcium Carbonate, Filler