2006年11月 紙パ技協誌

 
Green Policy in China

Meguri Aoyama
Asia Group, Nippon Keidanren

 China is facing an increasingly polluted environment severe shortages of potable water and declining availability of arable land. As a consequence, Chinese government is now taking a series of measures to protect the environment. These measures, called green policy, are formulated and executed by two governmental ministries. One is the National Development and Reform Commission, who is responsible for controlling the material flow. The other is the State Environmental Protection Administration, who is promoting participation from the civil society for protecting the environment.


Recent Development of Water Environment Policy : Area-wide Total Water Pollutant Load Control Scheme for Enclosed Coastal Seas in Japan

Yasuo Takahashi
Office of Environmental Management of Enclosed Coastal Seas,
Environmental Management Bureau, Ministry of the Environment

 The Are-wide total water pollutant load control system has been implemented under national legislation including the Water Pollution Control Law for the Tokyo Bay, the Ise Bay and the Seto Inland Sea, where the population and industrial activities are highly concentrated along extensive enclosed coastal sea areas. As a result, pollutant load has been steadily decreased in these areas.
 As for the current status of the water environment in these sea areas, achievement ratios of the Environment Quality Standards are not sufficient, although the water quality has been clearly improved in the Tokyo Bay.
In the Tokyo Bay, Ise Bay and the Osaka Bay, actual adverse effects are occurring, such as large-scale oxygen-deficient water mass. As for the Seto Inland Sea (excluding the Osaka Bay), the occurrence of the oxygen-deficient water mass is limited, and the water quality is better than other sea areas.
 Based on these situations, the Central Environment Council submitted a report to the Minister of the Environment on May 18, 2005, entitled "Basic Direction of the 6th Total Water Pollutant Load Control Scheme". In this report, the council recommended that it is necessary to further reduce the pollutant load in the Tokyo Bay, Ise Bay and Osaka Bay, while continuing existing measures for the Ise Inland Sea (excluding Osaka Bay) to maintain the present water quality.
 The council report also suggested issues to be further addressed, including the consideration of targets for the water quality and methods of evaluation of these targets. The Ministry of the Environment is in the way to consider these issues under "extensive review of the framework of the water environment".


Current Situation Surrounding Industrial Waste Disposal in Chiba Prefecture

Hiroo Kitada
Chiba Prefecture, Environment and Life Division, Industrial Waste Dept.

 In Chiba Prefecture, about 40% of the amount of illegal disposal in the whole country concentrated in the 1999 fiscal year, and it became a dishonorable result in which nationwide worst one for three years after that.
 The wastes by which illegal abandonment was carried out are the sulfuric acid pitch, the tree waste generated with demolition of a building, construction sludge, construction surplus soil, etc.
 For this reason, in Chiba Prefecture, measures, such as strengthening of the surveillance by a green action team etc., installation of the environmental criminal division in the Chiba Prefectural Police, and original regulations establishment of Chiba Prefecture, were taken as illegal abandonment preventive measures, and illegal abandonment has been tackled.
 In the 2004 fiscal year, the amount of illegal abandonment decreased to 1/20 of the year of a peak as a result of this measure. However, the amount of survival of the waste with which illegal abandonment of the end of the 2004 fiscal year was carried out amounts also to about 3,900,000t.
 Therefore, in Chiba Prefecture, motion of removal measure command to a contractor and promotion of the removal and processing by administrative subrogation are tackled.


Rules of a Risk Communications in Solution of Soil Contamination Problem

Toichiro Maekawa
Environmental Solution Headquarters, KOKUSAI KOGYO CO., Ltd.

 After the enforcement of the Soil Contamination Measures Law, a soil investigation usually has been conducted all around the country in an occasion of a land trading, and the number of contaminated sites which is recognized has been increased rapidly. However the awareness of soil contamination is arisen in the society, only the negative information about soil contamination such as damage to the human health or decreasing land price is spread and the enlightenment of appropriate information is not given enough. As a result, many cases that a contamination is recognized fall in to trouble because the anxiety of people who face to a contamination is large and the understandings of a contamination between the stakeholders such as polluter, land buyer and neighborhood are different. Therefore in this problem, the importance of making the base for a solution by getting common understandings about contaminations between the stakeholders known as risk communication has risen.
 This report introduces the roles of a risk communication that took part in the solution to the soil contamination problem and explains some notices for proceeding risk communication based on the experience of soil and groundwater contamination cases which the writer faced.


The Regulatory Framework for Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent in North America and Europe

Hitoshi Takagi
Research Department, Japan Pulp and Paper Research Institute, Inc.

 In the United States, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) of the Clean Water Act is the permitting system to control water pollution. This system consists of both chemical and biological method for the assessment and the reduction of toxic discharges. The Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards (1998) set discharge limits for dioxins, chlorinated phenolics, chloroform, TSS, BOD and AOX. EPA is developing options to encourage effluent trading for NPDES permittees.
 In Canada, the Pulp and Paper Effluent Regulations (1992) under the Fisheries Act set discharge limits for TSS and BOD, and prohibit the discharge of effluents that are acutely lethal to rainbow trout. As well, mills are required to conduct Environmental Effect Monitoring (EEM) studies.
 The Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive of 1996 is a set of common rules on permitting for industrial installations in the EU countries. The permits must be based on best available techniques (BAT). The Reference Document on BAT in the pulp and paper industry set emission levels of TSS, COD, BOD, AOX, total nitrogen and total phosphorus to water. The waste water tax scheme has been widely adopted in EU member countries to improve water quality.


Status and Trend of Environmental Laws and Regulations

Shigenori Imamiya
Environmental Management Department, Oji paper Co., Ltd.

 Although many environmental laws and regulations have been enacted and put in force mainly to tighten the control since the 1990s, this trend could continue for the duration.
 The focus of attention to come in environmental laws and regulations could be placed on (a) energy saving and global warming curbing countermeasures, (b) waste and recycling affairs and (c) the chemical substance management. Especially, it is expected to introduce a drastic reform for "Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law" because there are some situations taking place, which interfere with adequate recycling.
 In this environmental seminar, the environmental laws and regulations are presented, which have been revised for the past several years and have to be watched closely.
 It can be said that for ensuring compliance to environmental laws and regulations, it is necessary to understand the purpose and outline of the laws and regulations, and raise the level of efforts.


Technology for Total Chlorine-free Bleaching of Kraft Pulp

Hiroshi Ohi
Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba

 Acid treatment was developed for non-chlorine bleaching of an oxygen-delignified hardwood kraft pulp. About 70% hexenuronic acid in the kraft pulp was removed after the acid treatment at pH3 for 1 hour at 105℃. After full bleaching with the acid treatment (A) followed by the ozone (Z) and the hydrogen peroxide (P), the final brightness of the pulp reached approximately 85 %ISO, keeping the viscosity over 15.0 cP. Little hexenuronic acid existed in the kraft pulp after this bleaching (A-Z-E-P). Furthermore, the brightness stability of this pulp was much better than that of chlorine dioxide bleached pulps.

Keywords: Kraft pulp, Non-chlorine bleaching, Total chlorine-free bleaching, Brightness, Hexenuronic acid


The Latest Environment Monitoring Technology for Drainage Water and Emission Gas Utilized in Industrial Plant Factory

Hiroshi Mizutani and Katsuaki Ogura
HORIBA, Ltd.

 The environmental pollution issue being recognized as social problem in 1960s was local social issue, and the casualty was relatively limited extent. However, the global environmental issue is currently going through ecological crisis, and we have to consider how to reduce the effects on the environment the world over. The challenges accompanying in a business activity in environmental priority days is to consider environmental issue.
 Next year is the 40th anniversary of the enactment for fundamental low of pollution in Japan. We outline in terms of steps in the progress of monitoring technology related to environmental problem and the latest environmental monitoring technology.


Analyzers for Effluent Gas and Waste Water

Kiyoshi Ogawa
DKK-TOA CORPORATION, Sales Planning Dept.

 Environmental pollution surely escaped from the worst state. But, is not complete. Movement of environmental purification must be continued. What primarily you must do will be grasp of the situation. It will be necessary more and more in future to grasp the environmental situation broadly more precisely. I introduce a trend about environmental measurement and a way of thinking of an analyzer along it as follows.


Sound and Vibration - Measuring Instrumentation

Tomoharu Wakabayashi
RION Co., Ltd.

 The environmental pollution issue of noise and vibration has relations very much in our daily life. There are a lot of complaints concerning the noise and the vibration in the complaint concerning pollution. In this report, it introduces instruments to measure noise and vibration.


Introductions of the Environmental Measurement Devices of Shimadzu with a Focus on Electronic nose "FF-2A"

Junichi Kita
Shimadzu Corporation, Analytical & Measuring Instruments Division

 The present situations of the odor measurements are explained. The principle of the electronic nose is presented. Some improvements of the electronic nose toward the practical applications are shown. One of the improvements is using the trap tube in order to avoid humidity interferences and another is to use new analytical method of sensor signals. Using new signal processing drives the absolute values of odor intensity and odor characters. The odor continuous monitoring of the black liquor's combustion furnace is explained by using improved electronic nose.

Keywords: Electronic nose, trap tube, multivariate analysis, odor characteristic measurement, Continuous measurement of odor


Operational Experience of the Recycle Boiler

Hiroji Kanuka
Hachinohe Mill, Mitsubishi Paper Mills Limited

 From the point of view of the global warming and the cost performance of the fuel, the fuel conversion, from the fossil fuel to the biomass, has recently been prompted among the pulp and paper industry in Japan.
 Because the fuel conversion had been one of the most important problems in Hachinohe mill for years, we decided to install the waste boiler that used waste tires, waste wood and paper sludge as fuel. At last we started the commercial operation of the waste boiler in July 2004. Since then, the boiler has been working well.
 As a result of the operation of this waste boiler, we were able to reduce not only the energy cost but also the amount of the CO2 discharge.


Sludge Dewatering Machine, Rotary Press Filter
-Dewatering of Paper Mill Sludge-

Koji Matsumoto
Application Development Section Process Engineering Department
Machinery & Equipment Division
TOMOE ENGINEERING CO., LTD.

 Dewatering process is an important process to reduce and solidify sludge, and people are asking for an effective machine. Further, because of increased interests in the global warming due to CO2 emission, a machine with not only with good dewaterability but also with low power consumption is desired. Rotary Press Filter is a sludge dewatering machine with new structure that has been introduced by Fournier Industries Inc. in Canada and is now being manufactured and sold by Tomoe Engineering. In addition to its features such as low power, simple structure, space saving, and less wash water, this dewatering machine is suitable for the new times in respect of maintenance and control. Since its introduction, number of units installed has been increasing year by year. In Japan we have installed 44 units for dewatering of sewage sludge, plant wastewater sludge, etc. Among them, 11 units have been installed for dewatering of papermaking wastewater sludge. In this report, I will introduce Rotary Press Filter's performance and effect of introduction.


Biological Effects and Biomonitoring of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluents
- Research Topics up to Vitoria 2006 -

Hiroshi Araki, Reiji Kaneko and Akiko Nakamura
Japan Pulp and Paper Research Institute, Inc.

 The 6th International Symposium on Environmental Fate and Effects of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluents (Fate & Effects Symposium) was held as "Vitoria 2006" on April 9-13 in Vitoria, Brazil. Since 1991, the Fate & Effects Symposium has played an important roll as a place of discussion for researchers on aquatic organism's response and toxicity associated with pulp and paper mill effluents. Topics of the symposiums for 15years, including health assessment, toxicity identification, bioaccumulation and hormonal activity, are reviewed and the current of biological regulations (biomonitoring) in EU and North America are discussed.

Keywords: Environmental Fate and Effects, Pulp and Paper Mill Effluents, Aquatic Organism, Environmental Impact, Toxicity, Bioaccumulation, Endocrine Disruption, Biomonitoring


Development of Manufacturing Process for High Quality Calcium Carbonate by Causticizing Process in a Kraft Pulp Mill (Part1)
-Fundamental Study on the Controlling Method of Calcium Carbonate Morphology-

Yasunori Nanri, Haruo Konno and Hideyuki Goto
Pulp and Paper Research Laboratory, Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.
Kazuto Takahashi
Gotsu Mill, Nippon Paper Chemicals Co., Ltd.

 Causticizing step is a process to convert green liquor into white liquor in kraft pulping mill, and this process also produces a precipitated calcium carbonate as a by-product. If this causticizing calcium carbonate (CCC) could be extracted from this step as paper making material, the lime-kiln operation would be shortened or stopped; thus the consumption of fuel oil and the discharge of CO2 gas can be reduced. However, the conventional CCC has serious problem of lower brightness, higher wire abrasion and poor opacifying ability as paper filler. Then, we challenged controlling the morphology of CCC like commercial precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC). In this paper, slaking and causticizing reactions were separated and precisely controlled, and then various shapes of CCC with high opacifying ability and little wire abrasion could be successfully obtained.

Keywords: Causticizing Reaction, Precipitated Calcium Carbonate, Filler