|World Market Pulp Supply/Demand & Chinese
Minoru Arai and Takayuki Noma
Pulp Dept., Marubeni Corporation
Marubeni Paper Recycle Co., Ltd.
Recently the circumstances surrounding pulp suppliers have been
dramatically changing in terms of energy cost, exchange rate, wood
chip and so
on. Looking at the supply side, we would see rapid expansion of hardwood
pulp mainly in South America. World hardwood supply will turn out
to be more than softwood supply. As for the demand side, China is
considered to remain the big market for market pulp. Considering
about production cost for pulp suppliers, they have been suffering
from sharp rise of raw materials and fuel, currency appreciation
against US dollar, which reduce their profits obviously. It is reported
that lots of Canadian pulp suppliers had to shut down their mills
The demand of recovered paper from Chinese paper mills has been
increasing dramatically, and it has given big influence on Japanese
China is major export market for Japan. China has further expansion
plans for paper and paperboard and will consume more recovered paper.
In order to secure the materials, China need to collect more recovered
paper from the domestic market.
Recycling Potentials of Kraft Pulps Prepared from Planted
Eucalypt and Acacia Woods
Division of Ecosciences, Institute of Symbiotic Science and Technology,
Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
When a kraft pulp is repeatedly wetted in water and dried for
several times, the strength properties of handsheets are considerably
The repeated wetting and drying of a recycling process affects
the microstructure of the pulp fibers. The shrinkage of internal
pore structure under recycling was not easily reversed.
Thirty-three 9-year-old fast-growing individual trees of Eucalyptus
globulus planted in Australia were examined to investigate variations
in pulp fiber and handsheet properties during recycling. Large
between-tree variations in the thirty-three individual tree pulps
were observed in tensile strength of handsheet during recycling.
The fiber wall thickness and the Runkel ratio well reflected the
shrinkage configuration of the pulp fibers during recycling.
Tensile indices at expected recycling were calculated by nonlinear
regression analysis for each pulp. Expected tensile index of handsheet
at extended recycling were closely related to the sheet density
after five recycles, the fiber swelling of original pulp and fiber
Three species of 11-year-old fast growing Acacia woods, namely
Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium x Acacia
auriculiformis (hybrid), planted in Malaysia were also examined
to investigate variations in handsheet properties during recycling.
Variations in tensile strength of handsheet of the hybrid during
recycling were similar to those of Acacia mangium. On the other
hand, handsheet from Acacia auriculiformis had lower tensile strengths
during recycling than other two species. The hybrid showed higher
expected tensile indices, compared with other two species.
Keyword: recycling, Eucalyptus globulus, Acacia mangium, hybrid,
fiber characteristics, paper
strength, nonlinear regression
Operating Experience of Kraft Pulp Mill
Technical and Industrial Department, CENIBRA
Cenibra (Celulose Nipo-Brasileira S.A.) is one of the largest
producers of short-fiber bleached Eucalyptus pulp. The company
on September 1973. In July 2001, Japanese company, "JBP" became
the only shareholder of Cenibra.
Cenibra's total area is 234,827ha, splitter in cultivated lands
123,398 ha with E. Grandis, E. Urograndis (hybrids E. Urophylla
and E. grandis) and preservation and legal reserve 92,087 ha. The
existing production capacity is 940,000 ADt with an expansion project
for 200,000 ADt up-grade schedule to be start-up in early 2007.
The increase of production and quality stability needs as a continuous
target, create a demand for wood segregation. Many parameters and
alternative methods has been tried to improve process control.
In this paper,the outline of Cenibra is introduced and mil operating
experience of pulp processes is reported.
Latest Recycling and Upgrading Technology of Low Grade of Raw Material
in Stock Preparation
Stock Preparation Dept. of Engineering and Development Div.
Voith IHI Paper Technology Co., Ltd.
Characteristics of raw materials in waste paper recycling system
for paper making are changing to lower quality in the world according
to recent higher recycling rate of waste paper, progress of printing
technology, more usage of Eucalyptus and acacia pulp and shifting
to planted wood from natural resources for pulping material.
Therefore, more innovated and appropriated stock preparation technologies
are requested to treat such low grade of raw materials and to improve
property of the paper and also runnability of the paper machine.
We, Voith IHI Paper Technology (VIPT), will state and introduce
the current raw material condition in the world and VIPT's latest
stock preparation technology for solution of your existing system
and planning of your new project.
Required Technologies for Expansion of Use of Low Grade Furnish
Aikawa Iron Works Co., Ltd.
The use of the low grade furnish has been needed with the rise
of the waste paper availability in the world. However, the low
grade furnish contains a lot of various foreign materials and various
printed matters with hard-to-remove-ink. This paper reports the
technical questions and measures regarding the expansion of the
use of such low grade furnish as the stock of paper and paper-board.
Stickies Control Agent for Recycling Paper by OPTIMYZE
Buckman Laboratories K.K.
As the demand for recovered fiber rises, the quality inevitably
deteriorates. Recycled paper systems contain deposits called stickies
that are composed of adhesives and other organic contaminants.
These stickies can produce an off-quality product, an interruption
of paper production, and increased landfill costs and buildup of
waste materials. We have found a way to save our customers these
production and end-product headaches and we can do it with chemistries
that are environmentally neutral as well as safer for workers.
The Optimyze Stickies Control family of products are based in
part upon newly engineered, patented enzymes. The Optimyze products
are specially formulated, using patented stabilization technology,
for use in furnishes composed of mixed office waste, old newspapers,
and old corrugated containerboard. Their specific chemistry has
been developed to break up and detackify stickies particles and
thus decrease the amount of contaminants that can be deposited
in recycle furnishes.
Optimyze is a unique enzyme technology that replaces more hazardous
chemistries and facilitates the use of recycled papers, which received
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award from United States
Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) in 2004.
Recent Large Aker Kvaerner Pulp Mill Projects
Kvaerner Pulping AB
Kvaerner Pulping KK
There is a clear trend in today's pulping industry. New facilities
are mainly built in Asia and South America, where access to fast
growing raw material and other production factors give favorable
level of costs. Operations in the rest of the world mainly focus
on modernizations of existing equipment and mills. This development
also reflects Aker Kvaerner's operations over the recent years.
In this paper, the "giant fiberlines" especially for Asia and
South America will be focused on.
The Latest Andritz Chemical Fiberlines, Mechanical Pulping Systems
and Recycled Fiber Processes Delivered in China and South America
Kanji Hagiwara, Yosuke Takeshita and Tamio Fukuzawa
Andritz K.K., Japan
Andritz has delivered quite a number of pulping systems in South
America since 2000 and also has delivered many Mechanical pulping
systems and Recycled Fiber (DIP) Processes in China over the last
10 years. The latest Andritz technology for the chemical fiberline
consists of the DFLS Lo-Solids™ Cooking technology and the
Fractional washing DD Washers throughout the brown stock washing
and ECF bleaching
provided with Ahlstage™ acid treatment process. The latest
Andritz mechanical pulping technology encompasses the PRC-APMPTM
and RTSTM-TMP refining of energy saving. These processes have been
successfully operated since the start-ups and the customer mills
have been satisfied with the performances.
This paper introduces briefly the advantages and performances
of the processes that Andritz has delivered in China and South
Keywords: DFLS (Down Flow Lo-Solids™) Cooking, TurboFeed™ System, Fractional washing
DD Washers, PRC-APMP™, RTSTM-TMP, Ahlstage™
Utilization of Used Paper Cores and Tubes on Manufacturing Corrugating
Production Department, Kanazu Mill, Rengo Co., Ltd.
Rising demands for environmental protection and resource conservation
in the recent years have accelerated the creation of a recycling-oriented
society, steadily increasing the Japanese waste paper utilization
rate to 60% in 2003. Meanwhile, demands of variety functional papers
with enhanced moisture resistance have grown as they offer greater
convenience to consumers. These functional papers containing used
paper cores and tubes raise serious issues to the paper industries
as ordinary equipments at mills can not utilize them as regular
waste paper. Also, functional papers consume a large amount of
electricity at pulping process and most of them are disposed of
as industrial waste. The use of such hard-to-recycle waste paper,
however, is an issue that must be solved as society expects increased
waste paper utilization rate in the future.
Rengo Kanazu mill started its operation in 1961 and currently
has two corrugating medium machines. In order to promote waste
utilization, the mill has been using 100% wastepaper since 1993
for manufacturing of corrugating medium. In order to meet current
requirement to utilize hard-to-recycle waste paper, the mill installed
a new processing facility for used paper cores and tubes in 2004.
The new facility does not require additional chemicals or heat.
Used paper cores and tubes are put into the new facility in ‘as
is' condition and the output is sent to the regular pulper, and
is treated in the same process as regular waste paper.
The final products manufactured in the stated conditions were examined
and they showed no negative effects on both table test and real
machine test. It is concluded that the facility can be operated
without any problems.
Influences to the Operation of Bleached Hardwood Kraft Pulp by
the Increase of Plantation Wood Chips
Pulp Production Dep., Ishinomaki Mill, Nippon Paper
Industries Co., Ltd.
Recently, in order to reduce the green house gas the plantation
is getting increased in all over the world. And also there is growing
tendency toward to conservation of natural forest and wildlife.
Therefore the percentage of plantation wood chip supply is getting
increased at typical Japanese kraft pulp mills. The tendency like
this will be accelerated in the nearly future. To correspond to
the change of wood chip property is one of important missions for
the pulp & paper industry. Therefore the industry is needed
to operate with various ideas.
Ishinomaki LBKP plant produces Bleached Hardwood Kraft Pulp. The
digester runs on the conventional cooking and the bleaching sequence
is D-Eop-D. The process flow is quite typical form. On the experience
of Ishinomaki LBKP plant, it is found out that the plantation wood
chips bring on the lower cooking & bleaching cost but the worse
plugging in a 2ndary knotter and worse vacuum on bleach filters
than the natural wood chips. The plant installed the optimized
procedure of wood chip mixing and some operational ideas as the
Including them, this report introduces some influences by the increase
of plantation wood chips and some measures for them at Ishinomaki
Keywords: Plantation chips, Vacuum filter drainage issue, Scaling
The Operating Experiences Using Low Bulk Wood Chips
Niigata Mill, Hokuetsu Paper Mills, Ltd.
Hokuetsu Paper Niigata Mill produces ECF bleaching kraft pulp
via two fiber manufacturing lines that started up in 1989, and
another in 1998. The 95% of total purchased woodchips are cultivated
and the remains are from domestic natural forest. The higher forested
chip ratio takes great advantages of pulp yields, black liquor
yields and chemical consumption. On the other hand, an unstable
digesting operation may come out that is caused by the low bulk
In this paper, the key points of the continuous digesting operation
under using low bulk woodchips are reported.
The Influence for Operational Factors by the Diversification of
the Wood Species
Sendai Mill, Chuetsu Pulp and Paper Co., Ltd.
The change in operational factors due to the increase in ratio
of imported wood chips and diversification of wood species by afforestation,
has recently become a problem. It is thought that in the future
as diversification of wood species advances, there is a possibility
of it becoming difficult to continue to stabilize operation.
The decline of the bulk specific gravity of the hardwood chip
and changed bleach-ability of the chip combination aggravates productivity
at Sendai Mill. In addition to the pitch trouble often experienced
due to chip combination the pitch trouble with the NBKP/LBKP switch
operation has especially become a serious problem. This report
shows the influence of the change in chip combination of hardwood
or softwood on the operation, and operational experience in the
production of bamboo pulp, which recently has been tackled.
The Relationship between the Character of Plantation Wood Chips
and Pulp Properties
Research Development Div. Pulp & Paper Research Laboratory,
Oji Paper Co., Ltd.
The relationship between the character (morphology, chemical composition)
of plantation wood chips (E. globlus, E. nitens, E. grandis,
E. camaldlensis, E. exerta, A. mangium, A. auriculiformis, A. hybrid
(A. mangium×A. auriculiformis)) and pulp properties was investigated.
The results showed that fiber morphology in wood chips has a great
influence on sheet properties, and that the lower lignin content
in wood chips gives less energy for pulping and higher pulp yield.
However, there were some exceptions to relationship between pulping
efficiency and lignin content. In order to evaluate pulp properties
of new wood chips, it is necessary to make pulping tests and measure
the fiber morphology.
Reports of 92nd PAPTEC Annual Meeting
Longview Office of Nippon Paper Industries and North Pacific Paper
Canada is the largest forest products exporting nation in the world. All
this resulted in 92nd PAPTEC Annual Meeting in Montreal during February 6th-9th,
2006 that brought together hundreds of people working to support the industry
and to revitalize it as it emerges from the challenges that have recently
beset it. The Standing Committees sponsored 42 sessions featuring 249 technical
presentations on a wide range of subjects. The comprehensive program attracted
the largest audience in the past three years with a total of 947 delegates.
Several papers in the fields of mechanical pulping, bleaching, paper chemistry
and papermaking are introduced in this article.
Evaluation of Water Based Gravure Ink Penetration into Coated Papers by ESCA
Yasushi Ozaki and Michiharu Uchida
Research Institute, National Printing Bureau
Ink absorption on coated paper was investigated using ESCA. The relative
intensities (Cu2p/C1s) and (Si2p/C1s) were measured by ESCA. The relative
intensities (Si2p/C1s) were shown as the rate at which coated paper was covered
with ink while the relative intensities (Cu2p/C1s) were shown as the exposure
ratio of ink pigments. The relative intensity (Si2p/C1s) decreased with the
increase of ink transferred area and leveled out at the lowest value. The
region of leveling off indicated that ink almost covered the coated paper.
The relative intensities (Cu2p/C1s) in this region were approximately regarded
as the exposure ratio of ink pigments to ink vehicle.
The intensity (Cu2p/C1s) of the printed samples on coated layers with high
micro-pore volume was high. The exposure ratio of ink pigments on gravure
prints of the coated paper was correlated with liquid absorption into the
same paper by Bristow method.
The penetration of water based gravure ink on coated papers could be estimated
from the relative intensity (Cu2p/C1s) by ESCA. This technique was directly adapted
to the gravure prints.
Keyword: gravure ink, ESCA, liquid absorption, Bristow method