2005年5月 紙パ技協誌

 

Trend of the Top Runner Transformers and the Energy-Saving Nature of the Amorphous Core Transformers

S. Oshiki
Power Distribution & Environmental Systems Division,
Hitachi Industrial Equipment Systems Co., Ltd.

 In order to promote saving resources and environmental protection, The Energy Conservation Law was enacted, and revision has been performed for the strengthening.
 By revision in April, 2003, the distribution transformers were applied specification of the Top Runner Program. (Target Fiscal Year : 2006 for oil-immersed transformers, 2007 for molded transformers)
 The manufacturer of this transformer has duty in which the set-up the standard point of energy consumption efficiency is kept, and in case of violation, the manufacturer will be apply penal regulations, such as recommendation.
 The energy conservation effects by adopting the Top Runner Transformers is in the tendency of early introduction from about 30% of improvement being expected and the measure for spread, such as adoption to the "Law on Promoting Green Purchasing", is also taken.
 In our company, manufacture of the transformer which adopted amorphous material with the excellent feature in no-load reduction as core is also performed, and the energy-saving nature is a product with which it satisfy of the standard point enough.
 This time, we will show you the circumstances of the Top Runner Program adoption of the transformers, the feature, and the energy-saving effect of the Super Amorphous Transformers.


Top Runner Transformers Applied to the Energy Efficiency Standard for Equipment

Masashi Nanya
Transformer & Motor Control Center Division,
Toshiba Industrial Products Manufacturing Corporation

 Recently, to save the energy consumption (CO2 exhaust), several equipments had been set the criteria for loss consumption. The new criteria was chosen the distribution transformers efficiency. Top Runner Standard were determined that the energy efficiency standard for equipment were set higher level than the performance of the best-efficiency equipment among currently commercialized products for each category. The distribution transformers efficiency was standard that improvements of energy efficiency were achieved to high efficiency technology.
 We have developed new transformers applied to Top Runner Standard. In this paper, we explained the newly to the developed Top Runner Transformers.


Micro Hydraulic Generation Using Water Supply for Industrial Use

Takuji Tojyo
Koyo Paper Co., Ltd.

 Although energy saving had been tackled for years, development of a new energy source was tackled lately in accordance with the measure which reduces the conventional energies.
 Already familiar new energy systems, such as solar system and wind power, are a certain things, In order to install as a company, it is almost the case which has an economic not enough effect.
 The small Hydraulic generation system using water supply for industrial use installed this time is equipment which days of operation will be expected to be maximum output 9.6kwh through 300 days or more per year in day and night though small-scale, and Is realized enough also economically.
 Especially this Hydraulic generation system had installation in the place which does not have an irrigation canal and a head chiefly taken into consideration, and are a fall and a regulating system which can respond to change of amount of water broadly.
 Although it was very small energy, it installed as a long-term energy-saving measure.


Results of the FY 2004 follow-up to JPA’s Voluntary Action Plan and Report of Energy Situation in the Pulp and Paper Industry in Japan

Kunihiko Aida Japan Paper Association

 The Japan Paper Association (JPA) has been actively working to save energy since 1997 when it established its “Voluntary Action Plan on Environmental Issues”. JPA declared its policy of restraining CO2 emissions as one of the actions: By 2010, reduce fossil energy consumption per product unit for paper products by 10% from that of 1990 level.
 Since FY1990, JPA has been following through on the actual results of the unit of energy in the year, and has been publishing its results compared with that in 1990. The following are the results for FY2003 and reports of energy situation in the pulp and paper industry in Japan.
 The survey also reported on energy consumption, CO2 emissions and the position of the pulp and paper industry in Japan as related information.


Development and Operation Results of Tire Derived Fuel Fired Bubbling Fluidized Bed Boiler

Ryo Yamazaki and Tatsuo Yokoshiki
Boiler Engineering Section, Boiler Engineering Department,
Power Systems Headquarters, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.

 Each country promotes action to counter Global Warming and Climate Change by reducing the CO2 emission.
In the pulp and paper company industries, the energy conservation has promoted by the conversion of the conventional oil or coal to the recycling reused waste fuel.
 About the tire derived fuel (TDF), the amount of domestic generating is about 1 million ton per year and the about 87% is recycled. In recent years, TDF is expected as the power generation utility because the amount of recycling tire for thermal utility is reducing with decrease in production of the cement maker who is a large user of TDF.
 Under the promotion of environmental protections, MHI has developed the TDF fired bubbling fluidized bed boilers, and those are operating as a power generation boiler of the pulp and paper companies.
 MHI’s TDF fired bubbling fluidized bed boiler has the technologies of continuous stable discharge of the steel wire which is included 10〜20% in a TDF without the deposition on the furnace bottom, and of the low environmental load combustion by the M-STAR method (Multi-Stage Air Re-firing Method: patent of Mitsubishi ).
 Especially in this paper, we introduces about the outline of the development circumstances and an actual operation result.


Highly Efficient Cogeneration System for Pulp and Paper Industry

Minoru Nakayasu
Industrial Gas Turbine Center, Gas Turbine Division,
Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.

 It has become urgently necessitated to save energy and reduce environmental pollutants such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides, as declared by the Third Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC-COP3/Kyoto) held in December 1997. Therefore, introduction of systems with high efficiency is desirable.
 This paper describes a highly efficient Gas Turbine cogeneration system that combines energy savings with low pollution.


The Features of Our Large Sized Drum Less Water Tube Boiler “Ifrite” Series and It’s Example of Application to the Corrugated Paper Production Equipment

Osamu Toda
Boiler Engineering Department, Boiler Engineering Office,
Kawasaki Thermal Engineering Co., Ltd.

 In recent years, multi-sets of a small type drum less water tube boiler were installed more often for the purpose of energy saving and laborsaving of a boiler facility, since it is convenient. Moreover, in order to aim at improvement in synthetic thermal efficiency of the facility using the steam, the heat recovery from the drain of the used steam is performed briskly.
 Since this drain has a heating value equivalent to about 40% of the latent heat of vapourization, whether this is reused effectively influences the thermal efficiency of the whole facility greatly.
 The corrugated paper production equipment needs the steam of the pressure of about 1.27 MPa, and in order that it may perform the heat recovery from a high-pressure drain, the water tube boiler or the flue and smoke tube boiler has been used for some time.
 Then, our large sized drum less water tube boiler has both the convenience of a small type drum less water tube boiler, and the good stability which the water tube boiler or the flue and smoke tube boiler has. We introduce the features of our large-sized drum less water tube boiler and the example of application to the corrugated paper production equipment.


Efficient Collection of Energy from Organic Wastewater

Masaharu Yamashita
Zero Emission Group Energy Solution Department Power Plant Division,
Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd.

 Methane fermentation process has been known as an effective treatment process for organic wastewater instead of the activated sludge system. Methane fermentation process uses some kinds of anaerobic microorganism and they resolve BOD which is organic compound in wastewater into methane and carbon dioxide. Oxygen consumption for BOD treatment is unnecessary for this process and surplus sludge amount is much smaller than the activated sludge system. And biogas recovered from methane fermentation has mainly methane gas and it is utilized as high quality fuel.
 But because effective accumulation method of microorganism into anaerobic reactor has not known, methane fermentation process has been used for limited application.
 In 1980’s Up Flow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) process has developed and spread as effective wastewater treatment process. UASB process uses anaerobic granular sludge in which some kinds of anaerobic organism are naturally accumulated and the treatment capacity of UASB is ten to twenty times higher than the activated sludge system. In Japan, UASB process has applied to food processing including brewery and big UASB plant for treatment over 20ton-BOD/day has been built. In Europe and America many UASB plants are applied to treatment of pulp and paper mill’s wastewater.
 After 1995 UASB system has developed into some high rate types and they has applied to much wider field than UASB system. IHI has supplied a high rate anaerobic system which call Internal Circulation reactor (IC reactor) for some kinds of industrial wastewater like brewery, Shochu distillery, chemical, general food process and pulp and paper mill and proposed biogas recovery and utility system.
 Some examples about biogas recovery and utility system introduce in this paper.


High Thermal Efficiency Gas Engine Fuelled by Bio or Waste Origin Gas

Satoru Goto
Niigata Power Systems Co., Ltd.
Engineering & Technology Center, GE Development

  It is necessary to develop the high efficiency gas engine, which uses bio or waste origin low calorie gas for effective use of energy resources. The composition of bio or waste origin low calorie gas is composed of CH4, CO2 or H2, CO, CO2, N2, and others. Every combustible gas has a possibility of fuel for internal combustion engines, if suitable combustion method is established.
 The micro-pilot fuel oil ignition gas engine that uses a small amount of marine diesel oil corresponding to a few percent of the thermal input as the ignition source has a technically suitable combustion concept for utilization of such gases with unstable heat value. The great advantage of micro-pilot fuel oil ignition, adjustable and high ignition energy, led strong combustion stability, and a good thermal efficiency is achieved.


Energy Saving Example by Aeration Process Change of the Activated Sludge Process

Takashi Yamamoto and Masahiko Taniguchi
Engineering Department, Nichinan Mill, Oji paper Co., Ltd

 Many paper mills have "the activated sludge process" which does microorganism treatment the effluent treatment process, and our Nichinan mill uses this system as well.
 It is necessary to activate a microorganism in this activated sludge process by feeding oxygen(air) that consumes electric power.
 There are three methods --- the surface aeration process, underwater aeration process and diffuser pipe process. This report introduces that energy saving is obtained by new modeldiffuser pipe using in the activated sludge process in Nichinan mill.


Solution for Paper Machine Deposit Oriented Spot Prevention

Tomohiko Nagatsuka
Sales Engineering Dev, Maintech Co., Ltd.

 Spot problems originate from deposition of pitch, stickies and latex in the dryer section is becoming a critical problem under high DIP furnish, closed system and alkalization conditions. These spots lead to production and quality problems such as an increase of broke and joint work. To date, only a few pitch control programs have been tried, high-pressure fabric (canvas) cleaning showers and double doctoring have been developed. However none of them have met with industry-wide acceptance.
 Maintech has developed a spot prevention program, a total solution that passivates all surfaces in the paper machine where the deposition could increase spots. The resulting surface passivation prevents depositions on wire, felt, press rolls , cylinder, fabric and calendar rolls and drastically reduces the number of spots on paper. Mills can take considerable advantage of this program. Elimination of deposits in the paper machine reduces not only the number of joints in the finished rolls but also reduced tonnage and down time for M/C cleaning.
 This paper reviews an investigative method of spot generation from M/C deposition. Case histories illustrating gained benefits in paper board grade M/C are presented.


Technical Trend of Mechanical Seals for Pulp & Paper Plants
―The Cartridge Mechanical Seals for Maintenance Saving and Resource Saving―

Hidekazu Takahashi
Seal Engineering Dept, EAGLE INDUSTRY Co., Ltd.

 A mechanical seal prevents or reduces outboard leakage of toxic chemicals and saves energy and resources. Therefore, it can be deemed as one of the important environmental instruments that is directly and indirectly contributing environmental preservation. In a pulp & paper plant, many numbers of varieties of pumps are utilized such as water pumps, pulp pumps and chemical pumps all through the production processes from digesting to painting.
 In recent years, a mechanical seal has been selected as a standard sealing device for such pumps. The maintenance of mechanical seals is getting important. I will make brief explanation of the mechanical seals first and then describe the maintenance of mechanical seals and the cartridge mechanical seals for maintenance saving and resource saving.


Hybrane, a New Versatile Platform of Hyperbranched Polymers for Coating Applications

M.L.J. van Leeuwen
DSM Hybrane BV

 DSM has invented a new platform of Hyperbranched polymers, trade name HybraneTM. Hybranes show remarkable properties and have found application as paper coating additive:
 ・Low viscosity in solution
 ・High functionality at low concentrations
 ・Hybranes can be tailore made to show desired functionality
 A number of HybraneTM products are being commercialised as additive for paper coating formulation, to be used as:
 ・Runnability improvement agent for Metered Size press applications
 ・Printability improvement agent for coated fine papers


A Report on the PAPTAC (Canada) 91st Annual Meeting

Kunitaka Toyofuku
Japan Tappi

 The 91st Annual Meeting of the Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada was held in Montreal, Canada on February 7-10, 2005. The meeting had more than 10000 entries and 400 or more exhibitors. It was one of the largest conferences worldwide in pulp and paper industry.
 There were 146 presentations. Those were ranged from the pure academic fields to the new product introductions and included 93 from domestic, 53 from overseas such as 29 from U.S., 9 from Finland and 6 from Germany.


Elastic Deformation Strength for Square Tubular Case of Corrugated Fibber Board Box Shape under Uniform Compression (On Anisotropic Panel)

Satoru Matsushima
Guest Professor, Research of District Corporation, Ehime University
Shigeo Matsushima
Professor Emeritus, Ehime University

 Formulations for elastic strains and deformation in the square tubular case (CFBS on anisotropic: width L and height h) of corrugated fibber board box shape under uniform compression were expressed from elastic stress formulation. Then from those formulations characteristic behaviors for elastic strains and deformation were discussed.
 Maximum absolute values of normal strain εxmax in width direction and total displacement uymax in height direction are constant for L increase. Maximum absolute values of normal strain εymax, in height direction, principal strain ε1max and principal shear strainγ1max increase and decrease slightly with L increase. And maximum absolute value γxymax of shear stress increases and decreases and maximum abolute value uxmax of total displacement in width direction increases obviously with L increase. εxmax, uymax and γ1max are constant for Ex increase. εymax and ε1max increase slightly and
γxymax increase obviously with Ex increase. And uxmax increase slightly with Ex increase. εxmax, εymax,
γxymax, ε1max, γ1max , uxmax and uymax increase obviously with Ey increase. εxmax, γxymax, γ1max and uxmax increase obviously, and εymax, ε1max and uyma increase slightly with νxy increase. Ratios εymax/εxmax,
εxymax/εxmax, ε1max/εxmax, γ1max/εxmax and uymax/uxmax are nearl 10, 1.5 10, 10, 1 and 12.