2003 May JAPAN TAPPI JOURNAL

 

JAPAN TAPPI JOURNALVol. 57, No.5

May 2003 Abstracts


Results of the Fifth Follow-up to JPA’s Voluntary Action Plan and Report of Energy Situation in Pulp and Paper Industry in Japan
Kunihiko Aida
Japan Paper Association

 The Japan Paper Association (JPA) has been actively working to save energy since 1997 when it established its "Voluntary Action Plan on Environmental Issues". JPA declared its policy of restraining CO2 emissions as one of the actions: By 2010, reduce the unit of fossil energy for paper products by 10% from that of 1990 level.
 Since 1998, JPA has been following through on the actual results of the unit of energy in the year, and has been publishing its results compared with that in 1990 every year. The following are the results for 2001 and the report of energy situation in pulp and paper industry in Japan:
 Unit of fossil energy in 2001 was smoothly reduced by 7.3% from the level in 1990. However, the reduction in a unit of CO2 emissions remained 4.0% because cost competitive coals have been largely used.
 Paper and paperboard production increased by 8.1% in fiscal 2001 compared to that of 1990 level, whereas, increase in CO2 emissions remained at 3.8% from the 1990 level. A breakdown of the 4.3% reduction from 8.1% to 3.8% shows that the pulp and paper industry decreased by 3.3% and electric companies contribute to reducing the remaining 1.0% (from effective generating and transmission electricity).
 According to 27 companies that replied to our questionnaires, a total of 16.9 billion yen was invested in energy saving measures for fiscal 2001 and the crude oil equivalent of energy saved reached 193 thousand kiloliters per year. As far as the estimation from 23 companies, 101.9 billion yen will be invested and 523 thousand kiloliters per year will be saved from 2001 onwards.


RPF : Its Present State and Future
Katsushiro Seki
Seki Shoten Co., Ltd.

 Japan ratified the Kyoto protocol, which aims to reduce the discharge of carbon dioxide into environment and to prevent the global warming. Now, The ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry is working to bring in a so-called coal tax, which will be expected to be as much as 700 yens per ton of coal. This tax will be a heavy burden to the pulp and paper industry.
 RPF, refuse paper and plastic fuel, is one of prospective substitutes to coal. The author will introduce the development and future of that pioneering job.


New Technology and Operation Records of Kawasaki ICFB-type Boiler for RDF combustion
Nobuo Suemitsu
Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.
Power Plant Engineering Division, Thermal Power Plant Department

 An Internal Circulation Fluidized Bed (ICFB)-type Boiler with double partition walls in fluidized bed has developed by Kawasaki.
 This boiler is specially designed for Densified Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) combustion. As it is capable of preventing from the major contact of corrosive HCl gas contained in exhaust combustion gas, the corrosion of the boiler tubes can be avoided effectively. We can not only to achieve 30 % and more power-generation efficiency, but also to substantially reduce the emission levels of pollutants like dioxins.


Development and Operation Results of Recycle Fuel Fired Bubbling Fluidized Bed Boiler
Tatsuo Yokoshiki
Boiler Engineering Section, Boiler Engineering Department, Power Systems Headquarters,
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.

 Japan has been attained highly economic growth for the past decades. During the economic prosperity, on the other side, the amount of wastes has increased rapidly due to the mass production and mass consumption of various products. Nowadays, there is a tendency to utilize refuse as a fuel, to reduce the impact on environment such as global warming and to save the use of fossil fuel.
 To meet the social needs, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., developed the M-STAR method under bubbling fluidized bed combustion. Combustion occurs at high temperature created by supplying multistage combustion air to the upper part of the bubbling fluidized bed in addition to primary air from the bottom. Due to such high-temperature combustion under a well-agitated mixed-gas atmosphere with a long residence time, we achieved combustion with low NOx, CO and dioxin emission.
 The M-STAR method has been put to practical use on a paper sludge (refuse) and coal cofired boiler and a wood chip (refuse) and coal cofired boiler, and confirmed a much lower NOx, CO and dioxin level than the requests of purchaser.
 Further, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., go on with development and design of worn-out tire firing fluidized bed boiler. The boiler is applied the M-STAR method and technology which discharge incombustibles.


Industrial Waste Combustion Boiler Installed at Paper Mill- Ebara Internally Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler(ICFB) & Gasifier (ICFG) -
Keisuke Tsukamoto
EBARA Corporation Environmental Engineering Group
Norihisa Miyoshi
EBARA Corporation Environmental & Energy Technology Development Center

 From the problem of global warming, the reduction of CO2 emission is large proposition, and Paper manufactures have utilized positively biomass and industrial waste from a viewpoint of environmental protection. EBARA Internally Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler (ICFB) co-combusts efficiently many kinds of fuel, is suitable for industrial waste and biomass combustion boiler. Internally Circulating Fluidized Bed Gasifier (ICFG) is new technology and featured making it possible for a recovery of clean gas without combustion gas.


Present Condition of New Energy Policy
Yasuji Hamada
New and Renewable Energy Division, Agency for Natural Resources and Energy,
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Energy

 There is the big subject of Global Warming issues with the energy policy of our country in addition to securing of the energy stable supply being indispensable. To fulfill the commitment agreed upon in the Kyoto Protocol adopted in December 1997 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 6%, it is necessary to decrease energy derived carbon dioxide emissions by FY2010 to levels comparable with those posted in FY1990 in the case as our country. Therefore, in March 2002, the Global Warming Prevention Headquarters established the New Guideline of Measures to Prevent Global Warming, which incorporated energy conservation measures as well as measures on new energy. The latter includes specific introduction goals and additional measures. By carrying out these and other measures and programs, Japan intends to promote further introduction of new energy.
 Concretely, "the use of biomass energy" and "the use of snow/ice energy"were added to the targets as new energy stipulated in the Law Concerning Promotion of the Use of New Energy in January 2002, and the national government began its support for application projects. Moreover, The Law Concerning the Use of New Energy by Electric Utilities was established in June 2002.
 It is introduced about the present condition of these new energy policies by this report.


Anaerobic Treatment System for Pulp Mill Waste Water
Masahiro Hamane
Nippon Paper Chemicals Co., Ltd., Gotsu works

 We installed the high performance anaerobic waste water treatment system instead of our conventional plant, and succeeded in cost saving, easy operation and the small amount of a surplus sludge.
 This system converts the organic acid coming from foul condensate, white water and the fermented residue into the biogas.Now we report the operating experiences for three years.


Experience of Energy Reclamation from Biomass at Oji Nichinan Mill #1 Boiler : Water Tube Stoker Type Boiler
Ryuma Iwata
Nichinan Mill, Oji Paper Co., Ltd.

 The heavy fuel oil and bark firing power boiler (#1Boiler) has been operated successfully since 1960 for adjusting steam demand variation of Oji Nichinan mill.
 After the Oil Crisis, in order to reduce fuel oil consumption and promote biomass fuel utilization, Oji Nichinan mill has been conducting combustion adjustment tests and"facility modifications.
 The increase of bark consumption and the start of refused tire firing were conducted in 1981, and the combustion of waste paper was started in 1990.
 From our experience, there are some difficulties to utilize biomass as a fuel sources; one is corrosion or erosion of pressure parts (furnace, superheater and boiler bank tubes) and the auxiliary equipment (air preheater, multi-cyclone). The other is formation of clinker on the stoker. As a countermeasure for corrosion and erosion, upgrade to the corrosion resistant materials and replacements at regular intervals were conducted. However, the clinker formation has not been solved.
 This paper describes the process of fuel conversion to biomass and operating results of energy reclamation from biomass at #1 Boiler as an example of biomass utilization.


Utilizing In-process Wastes as Heat Source
Mituharu Hase
Kumagaya Mill, LINTEC Co., Ltd.

 LINTEC is a company which produce and sell the speciality paper, fancy paper and converted paper. When producing these products we are very sorry to say that the whole materials which we through into do not become the final products and a part of the materials become in-process wastes. At the kumagaya mill we make the RPF from in-process wastes which was produced at the five mills including Kumagaya Mill in kantou erea of LINTEC Co.,Ltd. We burn the RPF at the boiler and produce the steam which is used by driing the paper and so on. Producing steam by RPF instead of oil we can save the oil about 3,800kl/year.


Energy Reclamation from Waste at Oji Tomakomai Mill (#1SLB: #1Sludge Boiler)
Taiki Fukuzawa
Tomakomai mill, Oji Paper Co., Ltd.

 Recently, interest in utilization of waste as a fuel source has increased. This is mainly due to the pressures associated with reduction of landfill availability and reduction of fossil fuel consumption. Until now, the waste has been treated as non-thermal material, which could only be disposed of by inland reclamation, incineration, or other costly and less efficient means.
 Fortunately, an establishment of combustion technique and manufacturing technique for
 RPF (Refuse Paper & Plastic Fuel) has advanced through a modified combustion technique. This technique provides the possibility of waste conversion as the next generation of alternative energy source for fossil fuels.
 Oji Tomakomai production facility generates a variety of waste materials: bark derived from pulp logs, paper sludge from papermaking operations, amongst numerous others. Subsequently, the opportunity for waste reduction by combustion at #1SLB of the Fluidized Bed Combustion form reduced consumption of fossil fuels, and energy savings through utilization of these materials, as an alternative fuel source is considerable.
 In this report, circumstances and countermeasure to some difficulties for combustion of bark, paper sludge, and RPF at #1SLB started-up in Oji Tomakomai mill are described. The way of utilization of waste in Tomakomai mill is also detailed.


Refused Sludge Fuel System
Naomichi Tsuchida
Yufutsu Mill, Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.

 At Yufutsu Mill, we produce 300 thousand tons of newsprint, fine paper, coated paper and cup paper each year by pulp plants (KP, TMP and DIP) and 5 paper machines. Wastewater from each process is discharged after purified at clarifier. In 2000,wastewater sludge was 7,600BDt per year. We started Refused Derived Fuel (RDF) production plant up in October 2000 to reduce the waste and use wastewater sludge effectively. Wastewater sludge has not been used as fuel because of its low low-heating value. We succeeded to make RDF from wastewater sludge to mix with wood chip made from waste pallet and waste core. This RDF is used for coal circulating fluid bed boiler as fuel. Hence it made possible to produce electricity from waste and steeply reduced wastewater sludge disposed of at landfill sites.
 This paper describes about an outline of our Refused Sludge Fuel System.


Operate a Boiler System Designed to Combust Paper Sludge in Combination with Chip Rubbish
−Contribute to the Community, Conversion Fossil Fuel, and Reduce Energy Costs−
Hiroyuki Hirakawa
Power Section Tokai Pulp & Paper Co., Ltd.

 In recent years Tokai Pulp & Paper Co., Ltd. has made a concerted effort to improve the natural environment, such as minimized the effect of the solid waste that is released into the city. This means to increase wastepaper utilization rate, and maximize the uses of recycled paper.
 During the process of minimizes its impacts on the environment, the increased of manufacture waste is also generated. With paper sludge/ chip rubbish steam plant in place (number 10 boiler), Tokai Pulp & Paper Co., Ltd. in now able to use the majority of its paper sludge by-produce, reducing both energy and disposal costs. By using the paper sludge and chip rubbish as a fuel, Tokai Pulp & Paper Co., Ltd. minimizes its impacts on the environment, reduces reliance on fossil fuel related greenhouse gas emissions, and stability of the power generation.


Operating Experience and Reconstruction of Paper Sludge Incinerator
Yutaka Suzuki
Iwanuma Mill,Daishowa PaperCo,Ltd

 The incinerator of Daishowa Paper Iwanuma mill has burned and disposed paper sludge(PS) and rejects from waste paper deinking process(DIP) without using any auxiliary fuel.
 This incinerator was required reconstruction in order to apply both new dioxin regulation in Dec. 1997, and the increase of PS due to the increase of DIP production.
 The reconstruction was completed in May 2002.
 Burning capacity increased 60t/d, namely from 190t/d to 250t/d. New addition of waste heat boiler,which recovers waste heat energy,and steam turbine generator has enabled maximum 3,100 kW generating power.
 A couple of month ’s commercial running,normal operation has been attained in Spite of the blockage of fuel feed system and the trouble of ash conveying system.
 This paper reports on the outline of reconstruction and operating experience of paper sludge incinerator.


NEDO Activities to Promote the Introduction of New Energy
Kazuhiro Sugimoto and Nobuyuki Kawai
New Energy Promotion Department,
New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization

 Under the Law Concerning the Promotion of the Use of New Energy, "New Energy" can be defined as important new energy which has not yet been widely used due to economic constraints, but which introduction is necessary in order to reduce Japan’s dependence on oil.
 NEDO conducts trial introduction of new energy and energy conservation systems with end users in order to verify the effectiveness of the systems and to establish the fundamentals of full-scale introduction, thus strengthening and expanding the introduction of new energy and energy conservation.
 In addition to, NEDO subsidizes project operators who promote the introduction of new energy and energy conservation to accelerate promotion, in addition to providing information, guidance, and support for dissemination to obtain understanding and recognition for such energy policies.


 Manufacturing of Magnetic Papermaking Fibers and Paper(Part V) Techniques to Make Magnetic Paper from Lumen-Loaded Pulps, and Physical Properties of the Magnetic Paper
Katsuhisa Fujiwara and Masaaki Morikawa
Paper Industrial Research Institute of Ehime Prefecture

 (1) Magnetic papers were made from magnetite and ferrite lumen-loaded pulps. When the papers were made only from the magnetic pulps, its breaking strength and burst factor were 5.1 km and 313 kPa/g/m2, respectively. The breaking strength and burst factor of the papers increased to 6.5 km and 461 kPa/g/m2, respectively, by addition of 2-3% fibrous PVA binder. Thus, physical properties of the magnetic papers added with PVA were nearly equal or rather superior to those of papers from unbleached softwood kraft pulp (USKP). Saturation magnetization value of each paper prepared from manganese-ferrite and manganese-zinc-ferrite lumen-loaded pulps was 16.1, 15.7 and 21.2 emu/g, respectively, and each remanent magnetization value was 3.5, 3.1 and 4.5 emu/g, respectively.
 (2) In the next experiment, magnetic papers were made by mixing a magnetic pulps and USKP by changing the mixture ratios of 0, 40, 70 and 100%. Breaking strength of these papers decreased with the increase in the added amount of USKP to the pulps. When the 2% PVA binder was added to the magnetic pulps (without addition of USKP), breaking strength of the papers was almost same as that of USKP. Magnetic properties of the papers prepared by mixture of manganese-zinc-ferrite lumen-loaded pulps and USKP decreased in both their saturation magnetization values and their remanent magnetization values with the decrease in the mixture ratio of the magnetic pulps.
 (3) Furthermore, combination papers were made from a magnetic papers prepared from pulps lumen-loaded with magnetite and ferrite and a bleached softwood kraft papers (BSKP). When the 1-2% PVA binder was added to the papers, the interlayer stripping strength of the combination papers having two or three layers was improved to 1.7 N at the 50mm sample width, thus the composite papers having sufficient inter-layer strength were obtained.
 (4) Security papers endowed higher security were made by sparsely binding of magnetite, manganese-ferrite or manganese-zinc-ferrite lumen-loaded pulps and BSKP

Keywords: Magnetic paper, Magnetic pulp mixed paper, Combination paper, Security paper, Lumen-loading, Magnetic fiber, Ferrite


A Discrimination Method for Drawing Paper by Laser Displacement Sensor and Image Analysis
Hitomi Miyata
Metropolitan Police Department, Criminal Investigation Laboratory
Masahiko Shimoyama
Hyogo Prefectural Police Headquarters, Forensic Science Laboratory,
Makoto Shinozaki
Oji Paper Co., Ltd., Materials Analysis

 Surface topography of drawing paper was successfully captured by using a laser displacement sensor coupled with an XY coordinate table. The authors have proposed a method to identify paper by using an image analysis as follows;
 At first, the light-transmission images of the paper to be Fourier transformed are prepared from a flatbed image scanner. The similarity between the power spectrum of the FFT of the sample and that of a reference is quantified using a cross-correlation matching method.
 Drawing paper, however, is too thick to provide a light-transmission image. Surface topography, instead of light-transmission imaging, was found to be fruitful. 128 points each for horizontally and vertically with driving steps of 100μm, 200μm, 500μm were tested. Out of those three steps, with 500μm drew power spectrum most clearly and found to be most suited for actual use.
 Consecutively, surface topography of 14 brand names of drawing paper were examined with 128 points each 2-dimensionaly at 500 μm step.
 By carefully watching surface contours, PSs, and inverse FFTed images, some of 14 brand names were identified while others looked very similar and were difficult to be identified.
 The reasons why can be considered as follows; at first there could be room to refine matching algorithm.
 Second, only a few paper makers produce drawing paper in Japan and also the number of kinds of campus felts for the use of drawing paper is not so many as well.