JAPAN TAPPI JOURNALVol. 56, No. 5
May 2002 Abstracts
Techniques for Reducing the Environmental Load in Vehicle Transportation- On the Hybrid Electric Vehicles −
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
To reduce the global warming effect, it is important to reduce the energy
spent in transportation sector, especially spent by the vehicles．Because,
over 20% energy is spent in transportation sector, and more than
80% energy in transportation sector are spent by the vehicles．
Effective way to improve the energy efficiency of the vehicle is to introduce
the electric motors instead of the internal combustion engines．Motor
driven vehicles (or motor assisted vehicles) such as electric vehicles,
hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles (or fuel cell hybrid
vehicles) are expected to become widespread near future．
This paper describes current status of EV technologies and technical trends
in hybrid vehicles / fuel cell vehicles．
Fuel cell vehicle has a lot of subjects to be solved before popularizing,
for example, costs and life of cells, efficiency in actual driving
conditions, selection of fuel source, infrastructure for fuel supply
and so on．On the contrary, hybrid electric vehicle will be most
promising low emission and high efficient vehicles to be put into
practical use near future．Various types and levels of hybridization
may exist and will be accepted corresponding to the variety in
Features of the HEVs on the market and prototype HEVs developed by the manufactures
or developed in the governmental project are also listed．These
features lead to the fact that the fuel efficiency can be improved
up to twice of one in conventional internal combustion engine vehicles’
Efforts to Co2 Reduction Made by Other Countries and Japan's Responses
Office of International Strategy on Climate Change Global Environment Bureau Ministry of the Environment Government of Japan
Specific consequences for the Kyoto Protocol were adopted at the Parties to
the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP7) held in Morocco
from October to November 2001. This will lead to establishing sets
of rules for the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and promote
the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in developed countries.
Japan began full-scale preparations for the Kyoto Protocol, aiming
at ratification taking place in 2002 during the next Ordinary Diet
session. We will aim to adjust or establish domestic structures
for the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol.
This report provides you for the outline of the Kyoto Protocol, the agreement
by COP7, the considerations on domestic measures made by Central
Environment Council together with the report on other countries'
Photovoltaic Power Generation Systems- Current Status and Prospects -
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
The total amount of solar energy we are receiving from the sun is about 10,000
times as much as we are consuming now. As a typical distributed
energy source, solar energy is one of the most promising clean
and renewable energy for the mankind in the future. Especially,
solar photovoltaic power generation systems, which convert solar
energy directly into electricity, are attracting many ones attention
because of its simplicity and wide field of applications.
After a long period of R&D and various kinds of governmental supporting
programs, the cost of photovoltaic systems are reduced significantly, the conversion
efficiency is improved and the large scale commercialization has just started.
The present status, as well as the future prospects, of R&D and introduction
of photovoltaic systems are described.
The Current Agreement and the Future Agenda on the Carbon Sink by COP7
National Institute for Environmental Study
At the COP7 of the UNFCCC, international agreement was reached on the rules
for implementing the carbon sink related article of the Kyoto Protocol.
Especially difficult was the forest management under the article
3.4 as additional human induced activities. This paper summarizes
the agreed rules for counting the sink activities and discuses
the future agenda need to be negotiated.
Progress in Saving Energy Consumption in the Pulp and Paper Industry in Japan
Japan Paper Association
The Japan Paper Association (JPA) has been actively working to save energy
since 1997 when it established its "Voluntary Action Plan
on Environmental Issues". JPA declared its policy of restraining
CO2 emissions as one of the actions: By 2010, reduce the unit of
purchased energy for paper products by 10% from that of 1990 level.
JPA has been following through on activities in saving energies from fiscal
1998-1990 as a basic period, and has been making its results public
every year. For the convenience of complying data, targets were
changed from the calendar year to the fiscal year midway. The following
are the results for fiscal 2000:
Unit of purchased energy in fiscal 2000 was smoothly reduced by 7.2% from
the level in 1990. However, the reduction in a unit of CO2 emissions
remained 4.9% because cost competitive coals have been largely
Paper and paperboard production increased by 13.1% in fiscal 2000 compared
to that of 1990 level, whereas, increase in CO2 emissions remained
at 7.6% from the 1990 level. A breakdown of the 5.5% reduction
from 13.1% to 7.6% shows that the pulp and paper industry decreased
by 4.2% and electric companies contribute to reducing the remaining
1.3% (from effective generating and transmission electricity).
According to 29 companies that replied to our questionnaires, a total of 23.1
billion yen was invested in energy saving measures for fiscal 2000
and the crude oil equivalent of energy saved reached 176 thousand
kiloliters per year. As far as the estimation from 27 companies,
93.0 billion yen will be invested and 4,884 thousand kiloliters
per year will be saved from 2000 onwards.
Energy Saving by an Introduction of Inverter to Papermaking Process
Hachinohe Mill,Mitsubishi Paper Mills Ltd.
Mitsubishi Paper Mills have been paying an extensive effort to reduce the
burden to the environment respecting its own Environmental Charter
instituted in 1993. Mitsubishi Paper Mills’ Target for the reduction
of CO2 emission is to achieve the 20% reduction from the emission
volume in 1999 until 2005. As the CO2 emission volume of Hachinohe
Mill constitute 70% of the total emission by Mitsubishi Paper Mills,
reduction of CO2 emission in Hachinohe Mill is of the highest priority.
Aiming the continuous reduction of energy consumption, Hachinohe Mill started
the investment for the "Measures to reduce purchase energy
per unit production" in year 2000.
This paper reports the results of our first step investment to reduce about
1,000 kW electricity consumption mainly by an introduction of 80
units inverters to the papermaking process.
Results of the introduction of the generator using the steam from the accumulator
of digester as the second step investment and the other activity
regarding the energy saving are also reported.
The Energy Conservation Measure and The Industrial Waste Reduction Measure in DIP Manufacture Process
Chuetsu Pulp and Paper Co. Ltd.
At the Futatuka factory of the Chuetsu Pulp Industry Co., LTD., 170,000 tons
of newspaper papers are produced yearly as the main product. As
its main raw materials TMP and DIP are being produced. In response
to the global environmental problem , as well as the recycling
campaign, we have been promoting the use of DIP, of which the consumption
of energy is low and which is gentle to the earth’s environment.
Furthermore, in order to develop this feature, we have been promoting
energy saving and the measure against industrial waste at the initial
stage of the used paper pulpering process. There, we are aiming
at improvement in processing efficiency, the measure to reduce
the volume of steam for warming, as well as the fiber yield.
Installation of Continuous Pre-coat Renewal for Lime Mud Filter−
Saving Heavy Oil on the Lime Kiln System −
Asahikawa Mill, Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.
The No1 and No2 Lime Mud filters of Asahikawa Mill started in 1960 and 1972
respectively. To release plugged filter, accumulated lime mud have
been blown off using blower machine so as to renew pre-coat layer
Air blowing is not completely efficient so hydrochloric-washing work is necessary
for these filters. Furthermore, the moisture of sludge fluctuates,
and rotary kilns are thrown into unstable operation, therefore
consumption of heavy oil tends to increase. After installing CPR
(Continuous Pre-coat Renewal), lime mud feed is stabilized and
pre-coat blow-off is avoided.
This paper describes results on saving heavy oil achieved from the installation
of CPR system.
Activities of Energy Conservation in Power Plant
Tomakomai mill. Oji Papar Co.,Ltd.
Tomakomai mill thermal power station consists of seven boilers and 13 turbines
and can provide you with all of mill electricity demand by self
generation including hydraulic power generation.In a boiler plant,
the thing which passed increased the above than operation for 25
years and I took into account the present driving results and did
a review and did update to a reasonable fan more in turn since
1997. In addition, you should have promoted saving energy more
and carried out a start stop in the
weekend of a boiler turbine. I introduce the details to the following.
Energy Conservation for Medium Consistency (MC) Pumps in Kraft Pulp Line−Conversion Effects into Energy Saving MC Pumps−
Niigata Mill, Hokuetsu Paper Mills Ltd.
Hokuetsu Paper Niigata Mill, that started up the first full-scale ECF bleaching
plant in Japanese pulp and paper industry, intends to achieve minimum
impact mill due to concerning coexistence with the local community
and environmental aspects. This time, we are planning to strengthen
a capacity of Medium Consistency (MC) pumps in order to increase
a part of the fiber line. However, MC pumps consume most of all
electric power in the fiber line because they are running on large-scale
and high-voltage motors. We are going to convert MC pumps into
energy conservation types in the middle of December 2001. We believe
that the new pumps are expected to make great impacts for the energy
consumption rate and cost cut. The conversion plan is still in
process; therefore the backgrounds of the conversion MC pumps and
the estimation of the amount of saving electric power are reported.
The Energy Conservation with the Heat Pipes Finned Tube Heat Exchanger−Recovering Exhaust Heat of Coating Machine Dryer−
Nakoso Mill, Nippon Paper Industries Co.,Ltd
Nakoso Mill in the southernmost point of Fukushima lies to Iwaki City on about
two hours from the metropolitan circle. This mill is a medium scale
factory in Nippon Paper Industries Co.,Ltd, it owns one paper machine
and five coating machines.
The energy situation of this mill producing in the information papers results
an annual power consumption 79,298 MWh ( on private electric generation
66,623 MWh ), generation of steam 66,623 MWh ( heavy oil consumption
36,200 kL ) from February, 2000 to February, 2001. The energy intensity
doesn’t show remarkable improvement in spite of many energy-saving
projects, because of increase of energy consumption by investment
in plant and equipment in order to cope with more and more variety
of products to supply user needs. This mill has been tackled for
attainment of the target of energy conservation in whole this company
( 10 % reduction of energy consumption per unit products based
on 1990 levels to 2010 ). This paper reports on recovering exhaust
heat of coating machine dryer, has been planned for energy-saving
measures of coating machine occupied the majority of steam consumption.
Energy-Saving Technology and Examples at YONAGO N-1 Paper Machine and N-1Coater
OJI Engineering Co., Ltd
N-1 Paper machine and N-1Coater at YONAGO mill,OJI Paper,has been in operation
since September1997.The new line has the capacity of 700tpd of
woodfree coated paper. The paper machine and the coater incorporated
the state of the new technology, such as double shoe press in the
paper machine, and Janus calender in the coater, to achieve high
productivity and high quality of paper. This article introduces
some examples of energy-saving technology at the paper machine
and the coater .
Elastic Bending Analysis for Plate of Single-Wall Corrugated Fiberboard-On Rectangular Concentrated Uniform Distribution Load Applied at Optional Position in Plate of Supporting Edges-Satoru Matsshima
Guest Professor, Research Center of District Corpration, Ehime University
Professor Emeritus, Ehime University
An elastic analysis of stress and deformation was attempted for the anisotropic
plate of the single-wall corrugated fiberboard (SWCF) supported
by four edges under the uniform concentrated rectangular distribution
load p0 applied in the optional range of the plate. Distributions
of stresses and deflections etc. on the outer surface of jute liner
(JL) of the SWCF plate obtained by this analysis were discussed,
and these characters were done obviously. Obtained results are
Large values of deflection and normal stresses (in machine and cross directions)
on the JL sur-face of the SWCF plate concentrate remarkably in
the loading range and are zero in plate edges.
The value of its deflection increases with the increase of the distances from
the loading center to the four edges. The maximum value of the
deflection is near the center of the loading distribution,and increases
with increases of four distances from the its load center to the
four edges. And maximum values of normal stresses are at the loading
center, and increase with the increase of the loading concentration.
The maximum value of supporting forces in edges is at the shortest
position from the center of the distribution loading. Large absolute
value of shear stress on the JL sur-face concentrates remarkably
near the loading range, and this stress near the loading center
dis-tributes antisymmetically to its center.
Key Words: Computational Mechanics, Structure Analysis, Elastic Bending, Strength of Corrugated Fiberboard, Elastic Stress Analysis, Structure Strength, Numerical Analysis
-Influence of Coating Pigment on Inkjet Printing Qualities-
Yong-Kyu Lee, Kook-Hun An, Kwang-Seob Lee
Department of Paper Science & Engineering, College of Forestry Science, Kangwon National University,
Department of Biomaterials Science, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo
Characteristics of inkjet-grade paper coating were evaluated by applying various
coating layers on a plastic substrate instead of paper. The poly(ethylene
terephthalate) (PET) film had to be hydrophilized by precoating.
Precoating with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was found effective for
this purpose, but resulted in crack formation after the main coating.
This problem could be avoided by adding optimized amount of clay
to the precoating color. Four types of silica gel, a plate-shaped
aluminum hydroxide, and a plate-shaped clay were tested as main
coating pigment, with PVA as binder. The latter two pigments gave
poor inkjet print qualities due to slow absorption of ink leading
to significant dot gain and mottling. On the other hand, silica
gel pigments generally gave satisfactory print quality, but it
showed certain variation with the type of pigment. The time dependence
of water contact angle against various coated layers showed correlations
with dot shape and optical properties in inkjet printing.
Keyword：inkjet paper, pigment coating, silica gel, contact angle, water absorption，dot area