TAPPI JOURNALVol. 56, No. 10
October 2002 Abstracts
Environmental Communication and Industries
Environmental Policy Group
Faculty of Environmental
Environmental Communication is an exchange of environmental information
among different actors, i.e. citizens, industry, public authorities and NGOs,
to establish between them a partnership for the realisation of a sustainable
society. For companies, it is a challenge to promote the communication of environmental
information, the provision of which is not legally required but discretionary.
In conducting economic activities, industries are consuming natural resources
that are the common asset of all global citizens. In other words, citizens entrust
the use of natural resources to industries in return for the fruits of their
activities in the form of products or services. This means that citizens have
a right to know and companies are accountable for providing information about
the interrelations between companies: economic activities and the environment.
In order for industries to properly take this responsibility in contributing
to citizens: right to know, it is essential for them to grasp stakeholders: needs
on corporate environmental information by promoting environmental communication.
A study by the Ministry of Environment entitled Research on Industries:
Environmentally Benign Activities: shows that companies have become increasingly
aware of the importance of environmental communication in recent years. In future,
for companies to promote environmental communication in an even more efficient
and effective way, there are several points that need to be borne in mind. These
are to: 1) define the stakeholders and aim of information provision, and choose
the content and tools accordingly, 2) ensure comparability, credibility, objectivity
and transparency of information, 3) add some originality to information provided
as well as include negative information and 4) draw a future vision of the social
role or responsibility that the company wishes to take and of the relationships
that it wishes to develop with society.
The Yokohama Enviroment Protection Agreement and The Ideas
TamotsuAndo Enviromental Management Division Enviromental Protection Bureau of
City of Yokohama
Yokohama City had started the construction of reclamation of Negishi
Bay in 1959.In the reclamation area, large factories of electric power plant,
gas industry, petroleum refinery, petrochemical industry, electrical industry,
machine industry, and ship construction etc, were expected to be build. However,
expansion of air pollution by the factories was anxious.
However, under the laws, Yokohama City did not have any rights to
control or lead pollution stationary at that time. Then the city has agreed to
have the contract "Pollution Control Agreement" with the companies
based on science data and public opinions. The pollution control agreement has
been contracted with Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. Isogo thermal power
station first 1974, it has been applied to supplement pollution related laws
and made good result, so it still has been
Contracted with many self-governing bodies since then.
As the situation surrounding Yokohama has been changed greatly from
the agreement established, we are going to propose this agreement as "Environmental
Protection Agreement" with considering the relationship among people ecosystem
and global environment as well as supplement the laws relating to environmental
Corporate Environmental Communication-From the viewpoint of Non Governmental
Member of Steering Committee, Valdez Society
Sharing information is the prerequisite of the environmental communication.
Qualitative aspects of general disclosure, for example, relevance, reliability,
understandability, comparability, verifiability and clarify, are also fulfilled
with the environmental disclosure. The sender of information should be grasped
the " 6W1H" points.
According to the survey against companies certificated ISO14001 in
Japan in 1999, they didn't always positively environmental disclosure and communication
in spite of researchers' hypothesis. Companies certificated ISO14001 should be
positively promoted the environmental disclosure and communication.
Corporate environmental reports (CERs), the base belong some corporate
discloser:s media, are published more and more in Japan. For readers, it is difficult
to compare various CERs even them in similar industries, so I'd like to expect
to develop common item or indices for much comparability in CERs by industries
or industrial associations.
Chemical Risk Communication is took notice of recently in Japan with
the enforcement PRTR Low. Chemical Risk Communication is the interactive process
between corporate and stakeholders to promote understanding and construct credibility.
Stakeholders wish not only safety but also peace of mind against chemical risk.
Companies should be promoted communication to bring stakeholders' peace of mind.
Practice of Environment Communication
Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.
It will be important to the practice of environmental communication
with community for industries after the making public of the emission of harmful
chemical substances form facilities. We call it risk communication. Industries
must explain the risk of these emissions and improve the understanding of the
community. This paper explains about what are hazard and risk, and the process
of risk communication.
The Future View for Establishing the Recycling-Based Society
In the 21st century, there is increasing pressure to move away from
the current socio~economic system, which is based on mass production, mass consumption,
and mass disposal and to establish an environmentally sound, sustainable society.
In order for this to take place, the voluntary and positive efforts of businesses
that play a significant role in socio~economic activities are crucial.
For businesses, management benefits can be achieved, through operating
business of higher quality such as a reduction in the consumption of resources
and energy, less disposal of wastes, or by providing environmentally conscious
products and services.
In recent years, it has become increasingly aware that businesses
have social obligation to disclose their own environmental information. The importance
of publishing and disclosing environmental reporting, which summarizes the state
of environmental management, environmental performance, environmental accounting
information, and also promoting environmental communication with stakeholders,
e.g. consumers, investors, customers, local public, has been increased.
RPF: Its present state and future
Seki Shoten Co. Ltd.
RPF(Refuse Paper & Plastic Fuel) is a fuel made of waste paper
and plastics, and is attracting interest by its ecological character. Waste paper
and waste plastics are reclaimed from big factories with great care on their
sources. They are disintegrated separately to about 40 mm in size. Then, with
a certain blending ratio, they are formed into pellets (8 mm in diameter and
10 mm in length). Its heat value is 6000-8000 kcal. These pellets are used as
a solid fuel for boilers. The present monthly production is 10,000 tons, and
capacity expansion projects are in sight. The demand is expected to be about
600,000 tons a year in 2005. The paper gives an outline on its production system.
Statistical Survey on Industrial Wastes and its Utilization in Pulp and Paper
Mills in Japan
Environmental Technology, JAPAN TAPPI
Industrial Wastes Committee, Japan Paper Association
Environmental Protection Committee, Japan Paper Association
Japan Paper Association surveys statistics on industrial wastes disposed
from pulp and paper mills every year by sending a questionnaire to each mills.
The result in the 2000 survey is as follows.
1.The coverage is 88.4 %, based on the paper production volume.
It is the highest figure in these several years.
2.The total industrial waste generated, that is the sum of industrial
waste reused and industrial waste finally disposed, increased 6 % in B.D. weight
compared to that in the 1999 survey. It is due to paper production increase of
10 % in 2000.
3.The waste reused rate is 81%. The waste finally disposed reduced
11% in B.D. weight compared to that in the 1999 survey.
4.When compared to the 1989 survey, following improvements are remarked.
(1) The unit industrial waste generation is 22 % less
than that in 1989.
(2) The water content of the industrial waste generated
is reduced to 30% from 50% in 1989.
(3) The unit waste finally disposed is 80% less than
that in 1989.
5. The guideline by Japan Paper Association for waste reduction is
that the waste finally disposed in 2010 should be reduced to 450 thousand tons
(as it is) from 2537 thousand tons in 1990. It is 612 thousand tons in 2000.
Solution for Dryer-part Deposit Originated Spot Prevention Spot Generation Mechanism
and Prevention Program
Maintech Co, Ltd.,Sales Engineering Div.
The spot problem originated from deposition of pitch, stickies and
latex in the dryer section is becoming a critical problem under the condition
of high DIP furnish, closed system and alkalization. These spots lead to production
problems and quality problems such as increase of broke and joint work. To date,
not a few pitch control program have been tried, high-pressure fabric(canvas)
cleaning showers and double doctoring have been developed. However none of them
have met with industry wide acceptance.
Maintech has developed a spot prevention program, a total solution that passivates
all surfaces in the dryer section where the deposition could grow up to cause
spots. The program starts with M/C survey and interview to M/C tender to investigate
spot generation process, then present a proposal which installs right equipment
in right positions, uses right chemical products in right application methods.
The resulting surface passivation prevents depositions on cylinder, fabric and
calender rolls and reduce the number of spots in the paper drastically.
Mills can take considerable advantage from this program. Elimination of deposits
in the dryer section reduces not only the number of joints in the finished rolls
but also broke tonnage and down time for M/C cleaning.
This paper reviews an investigation method of spot generation from
dryer deposition. Case history illustrating gained benefits in a linerboard M/C
A Study of Print Mottle-Effect of Under Coated Layer on Double Coated Paper-
Latex Research Center,Nippon A&L INC
The relationship between print mottle of double coated paper and
characteristic of under coated layer were studied.
In this study on laboratory works, the influences of fiber coverage,
surface roughness and water absorption rate of under coated layer on print mottle
were considered with introducing the concept of critical fiber coverage ( CFC
Print mottle of double coated paper was influenced by fiber coverage
and water absorption rate of under coated layer.
This behavior is explained by the differences of water absorption
rate between coated and uncoated part of base paper, whereas water absorption
rate of under coated layer itself was influential over CFC.
"SHOWER ROLL"A Felt Cleaning Device
Aoki Machinery Co., Ltd, System Engineering Department
We have mainly installed and modified paper machines and other peripheral
devices since our company was established. Then, we have developed a breakthrough
felt cleaning device.
That is called "SHOWER ROLL" based on long experience and
accumulated know-how. Lately,
Importance has been placed on the recycle of papermaking materials.
Under such circumstances
most paper manufacturers are struggling against the problem of cleaning
from applying poor quality of waste paper. Moreover, the application
of cleaning chemicals,
detergents, and the like accordingly causes increase in cost to make
a commitment to effluent treatment problem.
Now, we will present our new type of felt cleaning method coming
from a novel idea, which is
totally different from conventional methods and explain the features
Valmet-Raisio Color Mat System For On-Line Measurement of Coating Color Properties
in Coater Supply System
Nippon U.S. Machinery Co., Ltd
The quality controlling for the coating color used to be carried
out so far by picking up color samples periodically from the line and bringing
them to a laboratory for analysis.
However, in the much improved and high speed production sites of
these days, the above method would inevitably bring us about a large amount of
loss in the color production, since the method would consume much time, after
any detection of undesirable things and before any counter-measure to be taken
to stop it would be taken. This has become the more peculiar, the hirer the machine
speed has got, and "on-line color analysis" has become a must with
that much increased coater speed.
On the other hand, the continuous color make-down system has made
its debut, out of the tendency to minimize the color consumption and to best
optimize the production efficiency, and it calls for "on-line color analysis" as
an indispensable part of it.
"COLOR-MAT" is a highly reliable an on-line color analysis
system which on-line takes measurements of temperature, solid content, air content,
and rheology factors, and is even equipped with a self-cleaning system. It can
be connected to whichever existing DCS systems in mills, and has been introduced
to a larger number of paper mills in Europe.
The best position along on the coater line at which "COLOR-MAT" should
be line-connected, should be as much closer to a coater head as possible, to
optimize the coater operation and consequent paper quality.
Ozone treatments of bleached kraft pulp and wastepaper II.
Simultaneous use of ultraviolet lights and hydrogen peroxide during ozone treatment
of bleached kraft pulp
Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology*
Chizuru Koga, Hiroyoshi Hosomura
Media R&D, Fuji Xerox / Supply Business Company
Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
*Present address: Research & Development Div., LINTEC Corporation
In a previous report, it was found that the brightness and the sheet
strength tended to be improved when the chlorine compound component included
in the pulp decreased during the ozone treatment of the chlorine-type bleached
pulp. At this time, ultraviolet lights and hydrogen peroxide were simultaneously
used during the ozone treatment of the bleached kraft pulp as an application
of the advanced oxidation process. The effect of the treatment by each combination
of ozone/ultraviolet lights, ozone/hydrogen peroxide, and ozone/ultraviolet lights/hydrogen
peroxide on the various physical properties of the pulp fiber and the changes
in the chlorine compound in the pulp were examined. In this experiment, three
kinds of light sources with different wavelengths and outputs were used as sources
of the ultraviolet lights, and changes in the reaction condition such as the
amount of addition of hydrogen peroxide and the presence of the stabilizer, etc.,
were evaluated. The total halogens (TX) and the ethanol extractable organic halogens
(EOX), which were the index of the chlorine compound, freeness, water retention
value, limiting viscosity number, tensile strength, and light scattering coefficient,
etc., of the sample were measured after the treatment.
Both the total halogens (TX) and ethanol extractable organic halogens
(EOX) decreased compared to the value by the ozone treatment alone when the pulp
was treated by the ozone/ultraviolet lights combination. On the other hand, the
brightness and tensile strength were significantly improved when the pulp was
treated with the ozone/hydrogen peroxide combination. For the combination of
ozone/ultraviolet lights/hydrogen peroxide, the tensile strength was remarkably
improved. Moreover, it was found that the improvement in the sheet strength by
the ozone treatment was attributed to an increase in the bonding strength between
the fibers as a result of the tensile strength and the zero-span tensile strength
measurement of the handsheet after the treatment.
Keywords: Ozone treatment, Advanced oxidation process, Chlorine-bleached pulp,
Total halogen, Extractable organic halogen, Uitraviolet light irradiation, Hydrogen
peroxide, Tensile strength, Brightness
Surface Chemistry of Deinking Process:Correlation between Surface Free Energy
of Ink and Deinking Agent on Office Waste Deinking
Shisei Goto and Takanori Miyanishi
Pulp and Paper Research Laboratory, Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.
The surface properties of four types of inks (toner ink, inkjet ink,
offset newsprint ink and heat-offset ink) and their effects on office waste deinking
were investigated with regard to the surface tension of deinking agents. The
surface free energy of those inks was determined from the measured contact angles
and surface tensions of probe liquids using the Lifshitz-van der Waals/acid ?base
approach. All of the tested inks were characterized as having low-energy surfaces
and the major contribution was derived from the Lifshitz-van der Waals component.
Among them the toner ink had the lowest surface energy whereas the inkjet ink
had the highest energy. The contact angles of deinking agents on the ink decreased
as the surface tension of deinking agents decreased. On the other hand, the deinking
experiments indicated that detachment efficiency of the inks from the newspaper
and copy paper became highest when the surface tension of deinking agent was
similar to the Lifshitz-van der Waals surface energy component of the inks. Furthermore,
the hairy toner/clean toner ratio, which was calculated by visual microscopic
observation, showed that the deinking agents, which gave better toner ink detachment,
facilitated toner ink break down. It was concluded that the surface energy is
an important parameter in office waste deinking.
Keywords: contact angle, deinking agent, office waste, surface energy, surface