|2011 December JAPAN TAPPI JOURNAL
Vol.65, No.12 Abstracts
The Trend of Domestic Forest Resources
The demand of domestic wood has hung low at the long period of time. The demand of the present domestic material is reduced to 1/3 of the 1960s.
However, the self-sufficiency rate of domestic timber has been rising slightly. Because in recent years, the supply of forest resources is increasing, import of wood is decreasing.
In order to overcome the severe situation of forestry, the government decided upon the forestry reproduction plan in December, 2009. By this plan a wood self-sufficiency rate will be raised to 50% in ten years.
This plan includes reexamination of the forestry planning system, maintenance of the structure of forestry, maintenance of a road, training of a forestry business unit, establishment of the processing and circulation organization of wood.
Key Discussion Points to Tackle Now
-Reexamining Energy and Global Warming Policies-
The 21st Century Public Policy Institute
In the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake, efforts are afoot to carry out a sweeping review of Japan’ energy policies. In preparing for such a major reassessment on the energy policy front, there are three areas that need to be consolidated as key discussion points: (1) Securing a “stable supply” of energy; (2) adopting the correct approach to energy supply responsibilities and cost sharing; and (3) realizing an energy industry competent in supporting stable supply. Zeroing in on these discussion points, this lecture will also strive to adequately consider and define the responsibilities involved in the devising and implementation of effective policies.
The Enforcement of the Revised Soil Contamination Countermeasures Act
Technical Division, Kokusai Environmental Solutions Co., Ltd.
In order to protect the health of the citizens, the Soil Contamination Countermeasures Act was enacted in May, 2002 for the purpose to facilitate the implementation of counter-measures against soil contamination by formulating measures to apprehend situations of soil contamination, and was enforced in next year February. However the revised act was enacted in April, 2009 and enforced in next year April because some problems came to be recognized after six years from former enforcement.
One of the problems is the increase in discovery of soil contamination which is not regulated by the Act. And the fact that removal was chosen overwhelmingly became clear by the data gathered from the local authorities. As a result, the revised Act was enacted in April, 2009 and it was enforced in last year April.
From a viewpoint of the actual enforcement, there is a tendency for the half of the number of area designated to be remediated, although about 850 areas have been designated in 8 years. And it was confirmed that the number of area designated had increased in last and this year. It is thought that the opportunity for the soil survey obligated by the Act has increased by the legal revision.
Furthermore, the Designated Areas are mostly located in Tokyo which is followed to Osaka and Kanagawa prefecture. On the other hand, there is no area designated by the Act in 32 prefectures; therefore the area designated by the Act is concentrated on some particular areas in Japan.
Official Data shows that the soil survey based on the Act is increasing clearly. And it is assumed that the number of the Designated Areas and the land, which cannot perform removal for remediation since the land price is cheap, have increased recently. Therefore, it is required to gather the information about the instruction positively by local authorities and new countermeasure technology so that landowners could take the correspondence taken into consideration from the broad viewpoint.
Effective Utilization of Wastes
Future Promote Recycling Co., Ltd.
Future Promote Recycling Co. Ltd. promoted recycling of industrial waste and aims at construction of circulation-ized society.
Recycling medicine, various metal wastes, incineration ashes, inorganic sludge, etc. are going across handling goods variably.
The ashes incinerated conventionally were mainly recycled as a cement raw material, and reclamation processing of the part was carried out.
Our company built the network with the partner company in which recycling processing is possible on a large scale, and realized recycling-ization to materials for engineering works, such as groundwork material for paved road and cement solidification material.
The Revised Law Concerning Waste Disposal and Scavenging of the Enforcement in 2011
-For the Paper and Pulp Industry-
BUN Environment Study Office
The Act of Disposal of Waste Matter was revised for the first time in several years. The measure against unsuitable right processing and the correspondence to a recycling society- low carbon type society are provided by this law.
The concrete contents of the new system are as follows. The processing contractor of waste has to notify those who discharged waste of it having become impossible to process. The contractor has to undergo the periodic inspection of a final disposal site and a waste incineration plant every five years and three months. The contractor has to exhibit a final disposal site and a waste incineration plant on the Internet.
Evaluation of Biodiversity in the Aquatic Environment of the Industrial Area
Japan Pulp & Paper Research Institute, Inc.
A wide range of materials used in the pulp and paper industry are derived from biological resources. The pulp and paper industry is also benefited by ecosystem services (supports of biodiversity) such as sequestration of CO2 produced by energy supply and effluent purification. The loss of biodiversity as well as global warming is increasingly recognized as a threat to not only wildlife but also economic sustainability. Biodiversity is often defined as the variety of all forms of life, from genes to species, through to the broad scale of ecosystems. Unlike CO2 emissions, quantitative methods to evaluate biodiversity, however, have not yet been developed. Therefore, most industrial actions for conserving biodiversity are limited to propose guidelines for preservation of biodiversity. Only few studies have been conducted to evaluate the degrees of biodiversity. Japan Pulp and Paper Research Institute has made enormous efforts to preserve biodiversity using various biological assessment tools combined with state-of-the-art analytical techniques since 1994 when the significance of conserving biodiversity was not even recognized. In this study, an ecological survey was conducted near industrial sites to calculate and visualize degrees of biodiversity.
Detailed Instructions on How to Operate Activated Sludge Treatment
Ogawa Environmental Research Institute, Inc.
Most of facilities of Activated Sludge Treatment (AST) are operated based on the operator’s experience.
The main reasons why the AST is not operated systematically are as followed:
1) The decomposing ability of BOD component by Activated Sludge (that is, an activity of Activated Sludge) in the aeration tank is not evaluated quantitatively in real time,
2) The instrument / equipment to measure promptly and continuously the BOD value of raw waste water and its decomposing rate is not available.
I show that the performance of AST is analyzed quantitatively by using these two indicators.
Fuel-izing of Sludge and Processing of Waste Water by the Detailed Seaweed
Japan Biomass Corporation
In Japan, sludge occupies about 18% in all the industrial waste. 75 million tons of sludge has occurred in every year. About 70 percent of waste sludge is destroying by fire.
Incineration of sludge will generate not only carbon dioxide but nitrous suboxide. Nitrous suboxide has 310 times as much greenhouse effect as carbon dioxide.
Our company is mainly developing the technology of the sludge reduction by a detailed seaweed.
Dry powder of the detailed seaweed which contains a vitamin B group abundantly is made into a sludge reduction agent. Sludge will be reduced if this sludge reduction agent is added to the effluent treatment institution of an activated sludge method. The cultivated detailed seaweed is condensed and it dries. This dry thing becomes the assistant combustion material of a coal-fired power plant.
According to this technology, it is not necessary to convert the effluent treatment institution of an activated sludge method.
Conditions and Outlook for Environmental Business in China
Tepia Research Institute, Tepia Corporation Japan
China has economically developed in the past 30 years and has rapidly expanded the environmental business, while she is confronted with various environmental problems. In this article, we give an overview of the present situation of environmental problems and promising markets for the environmental business in China. We also propose an ideal business model for the environmental market between Japan and China based on our analysis of Japanese companies that have extended their business to the environmental market in China.
The Newest Trend of Drainage Regulation based on Water Pollution Control Law
Environmental Management Bureau, Ministry of the Environment
The addition of the item of environmental standards was performed and a change of a standard value was made on November 30, 2009. These environmental standards are related with protection of the health of the person concerning the water pollution of public water areas, environmental standards concerning the water pollution of groundwater.
Reexamination of the provisional effluent standard concerning boron, fluoride, ammonia, etc. was carried out in July, 2010.
The contents of revision of Water Pollution Control Law are expansion about the range of clarification of measurement frequency, and the measure in case of an accident.
Global Warming Countermeasures of Saitama Prefecture
Global Warming Strategy Division, Department of Environment Saitama Prefecture
The amount of discharge of the greenhouse gas in Saitama Prefecture is leveling off mostly. The carbon-dioxide emissions of a segment of industry are about 50% of the total amount of discharge. It decided upon “Stop the global warming・Saitama Prefecture navigation 2050” in February, 2009. By this plan, the green house effect gas emission of Saitama Prefecture in 2020 is reduced by 25% in 2005. It decided upon “The promotion ordinance of global warming countermeasures of Saitama Prefecture” in March, 2009. The promotion ordinance includes the measure in active conduct of business, the measure in a building, the measure in a car, the spread of energy-saving home appliance products. “The planning system of global warming countermeasures” was enforced from 2011.
The Basic Study on the Relationship between the Physical Properties of Coating Pigment and the Coated Paper Quality
Keiko Hashiguchi, Takehiro Yoshimatsu and Masanori Kawashima
Pulp and Paper Research Laboratory, Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.
In recent years, the market needs for high quality and high performance papers even in coated paper. It is well known that we are able to control the coated paper quality by adjusting the type and the particle size of the coating pigment. In addition to this situation, a great variety of the coating pigment has also been developed lately. But the relationship between the characteristics of coating pigment and the coated paper quality is not well known. In this study, the coated paper samples were prepared by using nine types of coating pigment, which differ from each other and the quality of its coated papers were evaluated. The aspect ratio of a coating pigment is known as the ratio of its diameter to its thickness. But the measuring the aspect ratio is quite limited in calculating by the image analysis which needs the special computer software technology. A simulation model, based on the hexagonal shape, was proposed to predict the aspect ratio of the kaolin pigment. In this study, it was found that particle size, specific surface area (BET) and aspect ratio in coating pigment were all quite important properties for the coated paper quality.
Visualization of the Behavior of Hydrophobic Colloidal Substances and Cationic Polymers in Pulp Suspension
Yasunobu Ooka and Shisei Goto
NPi Research Laboratory, Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.
The interactions between hydrophobic colloidal substances (HCS) and cationic polymers in pulp suspension were investigated by means of conforcal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In this experiment, four types of cationic polymers, Poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), poly (vinylamine) (PVAm), Poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/acrylamide copolymer (DADMAC/AM) and polyacrylamide (PAM), were used. PAH and PVAm were labeled with fluorescein-4-isothiocyanate (FITC). The HCS in the filtrate of a deinked pulp from a mixture of ONP/OMG were also dyed with a fluorescent hydrophobic probe, Nile Red. The dyed HCS were added to hardwood bleached kraft pulp (HBKP), and then these cationic polymers were added individually. The suspension after the polymer addition was divided into long fibers, fiber fines and colloid fractions. The state of the dyed HCS in each fraction was observed as fluorescence by CLSM.
In the case of the addition of only dyed HCS to HBKP, the pulp after washing showed no fluorescence. Therefore, no interaction between the HCS and the fiber could be observed. Conversely, when 0.5% of the labeled PAH were added, patches of fluorescence were observed on the surface of the fiber. The addition of HCS to HBKP followed by 5% of the labeled PVAm revealed that most of the fluorescent patches caused by dyed HCS were located on the external fibrils of fibers, and some of dyed HCS formed large agglomerates. By adding PAM and DADMAC/AM, the turbidities of colloid fractions were low, but the HCS formed large agglomerates and fixed to the external fibrils of fibers. The smaller polymers, PVAm and PAH, formed the smaller HCS agglomerates although the turbidities of colloid fractions were high. Observations from the fraction of fiber fines revealed that PAM and DADMAC/AM caused large agglomerate of fines with the HCS whereas PVAm and PAH gave no agglomeration.