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2011 October JAPAN TAPPI JOURNAL

Vol.65, No.10 Abstracts


Revision of the Utilization Rate Target of Recovered Paper

Kiyoshi Kamikawa
Japan Paper Association

  Japan Paper Association (JPA) has successively set up the utilization rate targets of recovered paper four times since 1991 and has promoted paper recycling proactively. Since the current utilization target of 62% by the fiscal year of 2010 had been achieved 2 years ahead and the target year was approaching, JPA had started the consultation of the new utilization rate target beforehand.
  Taking globalization of recovered paper trade and environmental impacts of recovered paper utilization into consideration, JPA has just set up the new target of 64% by the fiscal year of 2015, based on the projection of demand/ production of paper and paperboard, collection /export of recovered paper etc, within the range of technological upper limits of recovered paper utilization.
  The paper industry in Japan will further promote the utilization of recovered paper by the measures of maintaining DIP capacity, improving the utilization technology of office and miscellaneous recovered paper, operating the verification system of recovered paper content, saving energy and reducing CO2 emission.


Evaluation and Application of Recyclability of Printing Materials

Hiroshi Nishihara
Center for Sustainable Design, ltd.

  In this article, a 12 years project which has promoted development and evaluation of recyclable printing materials is introduced. The project started in 1999 with government subsidy and major stakeholders like printing industry, suppliers of printing materials, paper mills, paper recover, and publishing industry have been involved in it.
  This article is consisted of 4 parts. First part is the overview of the project including organization, finance, background, objectives, history, achievements and characteristics.
  Second part addresses development of evaluation method for recyclable printing materials: hotmelt adhesives, seals, UV inks and colored papers.
  Application of recyclability evaluation as green procurement policies and standards are introduced in third part.
  Finally, some considerations on future agenda are brought.


To Promote the Recovery of Waste Paper
-The Necessity of the Consumer Enlightenment-

Seiko Hirai
Japan milk carton recycling association

  A domestic recovery rate of the waste paper was 78.3% (21,715 million tons) in 2010@according to paper recycling promotion center of the public interest corporation. On the other hand, the utilization rate of recovered paper was 62.5% in 2010 and the utilization target of 62% by 2010 was achieved. Because the recovery of the waste paper increased by strengthening the garbage reduction measures of the municipality in addition to the rise of a recent environmental problem and the concern for recycling, the recovery rate exceeds the utilization rate. A new target of which 64% will be the utilization rate of recovered paper by fiscal year 2015 was announced this year. To promote the utilization rate of recovered paper, it is necessary to classify the waste paper neatly at the recovery@because a constant recovered paper quality is requested corresponding to the usage. If neither further understanding nor cooperation of the consumer can be received, it cannot be achieved.
  A present recovery system was established by thorough enlightenment to the consumer though there was circumstance that dealing in the taboo goods not mixed with the waste paper when the recovery started because the two sided polyethylene film was processed to the paper carton such as milk cartons (beverage paper container), and there was no recovery route. Moreover, the paper production technology that makes the paper carton a raw material develops, too. Accepting them is in the situation of possible.
  I wish to introduce an example of the paper carton as one case to aim at the supply and demand stability of the used paper though the paper carton of only about 1% of the entire amount of the paper production.


The Basic Technologies of De-inking Agent and Its Functionalization

Ryugo Shimoyama
Research & Development Dept., Nissin Kagaku Kenkyusho Co., Ltd.

  The technologies of recycling lower quality waste paper have been developed in recent years. As one of suppliers for de-inking agent, we also has developed and functionalized the de-inking agent to solve various problems.@In this report, we describe the basic knowledge about types, mechanisms, properties, synthesis of de-inking agent and functionalization of that.
  Specific Water Management and Integrated Water Loop Provisions and Innovative Technologies of Saving Energy for Stock Preparation

Masakazu Eguchi
Stock Preparation Engineering Dept., Voith-IHI Paper Technology Co., Ltd.

  As recycled paper ratio goes up, and non-fiber inorganic or organic substances are more used in the paper to enhance the paper strength or paper quality, consistency of white water circuit and effluent water in Stock Preparation Process are getting increased, and getting more contaminated. One of the reasons for such consistency increase are, decrease of specific consumption of fresh water/effluent water, inappropriate white water and effluent water treatment, and supply/effluent water unbalance derived from unbalanced of process water system.
  Additionally, it is also a reason of contamination, that to minimize emission, some effluent sludge are partially re-circulated in the loop, or put in the final products, which causes further contamination in white water loop. A contamination of white water may lead to a longer maintenance time, sheet breaks from contamination, and general decrease of the equipment performance.
  What is the ideal goal of white water and effluent water and its balance in paper mill? We would like to introduce our idea of ideal water management for overall paper mill.
  Also, in this paper, we would like to refer to the energy saving technologies, which may meet the demands of reduction of electricity consumption coming in this summer by the disasters hit eastern Japan.


The Latest Technology for Waste Paper Treatment
-The Countermeasure against the Increased Rate of the Recycling Waste Paper-

Kazuo Aoshima
Aikawa Iron Works Co., Ltd.

  Saving resources and energy are required in all industries, not only the paper industry. In this situation the paper industry is committed to the waste paper recycle. The target of this year is 62.5% utilization rate of waste paper. This target was achieved. But the target of next 5 years is 64%. So in the future the waste paper never used until now will be used. It’s mean that Taboo paper (include UV ink or sublimation ink) will be used.


Recent Report on Kraft Pulping Process in Japan
(Phase 3) Safety Controls and Varieties of Each Manager’s Concern

Pulping Technical Committee, JAPAN TAPPI
Munehiro Kitamura
Mitsubishi Paper Mills Ltd.

  In order to improve Kraft pulping operations in domestic KP mills, Pulping Technical Committee surveyed. This report summarizes results of human factors, Safety Controls and varieties of each manager’s concern.


Evaluation of Biodiversity in the Aquatic Environment of the Industrial Area

Takashi Nishida
Japan Pulp & Paper Research Institute Inc.

Abstract
  A wide range of materials used in the pulp and paper industry are derived from biological resources. The pulp and paper industry is also benefited by ecosystem services (supports of biodiversity) such as sequestration of CO2 produced by energy supply and effluent purification. The loss of biodiversity as well as global warming is increasingly recognized as a threat to not only wildlife but also economic sustainability. Biodiversity is often defined as the variety of all forms of life, from genes to species, through to the broad scale of ecosystems. Unlike CO2 emissions, quantitative methods to evaluate biodiversity, however, have not yet been developed. Therefore, most industrial actions for conserving biodiversity are limited to propose guidelines for preservation of biodiversity. Only few studies have been conducted to evaluate the degrees of biodiversity. Japan Pulp and Paper Research Institute has made enormous efforts to preserve biodiversity using various biological assessment tools combined with state-of-the-art analytical techniques since 1994 when the significance of conserving biodiversity was not even recognized. In this study, an ecological survey was conducted near industrial sites to calculate and visualize degrees of biodiversity.


Waste from Paper Mill to Power-WTP

Tamio Fukuzawa, Mutsuo Yoshinaga and Ryo Yoshida
Sales & Technology, ANDRITZ K. K.

  ANDRITZ has been continuously developing the newest technology in the field of the environmental business lines, such as bio-mass utilization as carbon neutral, hydro power as clean energy, and waste to power (WTP) in the field of pulp and paper industry. Andritz sales turn over the past years related to the environmental business has been accounted 50% more over of the total annual sales. This paper introduces Andritz environmental technologies to convert the waste from paper mill such as reject, paper sludge and sludge from water treatment to an alternative energy for fossil fuel.
  In addition to the WTP system, ANDRITZ is a leading company of wood pelletizing plants, and has the market share of more than 50% all over the world.


Some Examples on Abrasion-and Corrosion-Resistant Cladding for Bio-Mass Boiler and Its Auxiliary Facility

Hiroaki Fukumoto and Taketoshi Goto
Welding Alloys Japan Ltd.

  From the viewpoint of resource conservation and reducing fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions, bio-mass fuel are considered as the most important primary energy source. Fluidized bed boiler is highly adaptive for various fuels. Because of its low affection for environment, it is the best method for direct combustion of bio-mass fuel. The paper industry companies are installing fluidized bed boiler for bio-mass as an alternative system for fuel oil boiler system to reduce carbon dioxide emission. Though fluidized bed boiler has the ideal characteristics for bio-mass boiler, there are some corrosion and abrasion problems to cope with.
  Welding Alloys Japan has been making rebuilding and hard-facing business tailored to customer needs. In recent years, customer’s inquires on rebuilding and hard-facing are increasing for bio-mass boiler and its auxiliary facility. We introduce wear phenomenon and prolonging lifetime method of equipment that we experienced.


Impact on the Filtrate from Bleached Pulp Treated with Peroxymonosulfuric Acid for Effective Removal of Hexenuronic Acid

Eiko Kuwabara, Tetsuo Koshitsuka,
Mikio Kajiyama and Hiroshi Ohi
Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company, Inc.
Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba

  The Elementary Chlorine-Free (ECF) bleaching process for kraft pulp (KP) has prevailed in Japan. We have known that hexenuronic acid (HexA) in ECF bleached pulp plays an important role in brightness reversion (yellowing) of the pulp, and studied ways to remove HexA. Acidic sized paper made from ECF bleached pulp often causes the yellowing by heat and moisture. As a result, we noticed that peroxymonosulfuric acid (MPS, Caro’s acid) and HexA react effectively, and developed an ECF bleaching process which is equipped with a MPS stage. Consequently, the brightness reversion significantly decreased. MPS was found to be one of the bleaching chemicals which can remove HexA efficiently, and it has begun to be used in the first stage of a KP bleaching process in Japan. On the other hand, there is concern that removal of HexA may cause an increase in the environmental load from the effluent of the pulp bleaching process and a decrease in pulp yield. We have clarified the relationship between the amounts of HexA removed from pulp and the total organic carbon (TOC) in the filtrates of washed pulp which were subjected to MPS treatment, hot acid (A*) treatment, and chlorine dioxide (D) treatment, respectively. The environmental load in effluent was compared between the various methods for HexA removal. From the results, it was found that the effluent load of the MPS process was considerably lower compared with other processes. In addition, it was suggested that the reaction of HexA removal by MPS treatment should be different from that of cutting the bond between a xylan chain and a HexA residue.

Keywords: kraft pulp, ECF bleaching, peroxymonosulfuric acid, hexenuronic acid, brightness reversion, TOC