2010年7月 紙パ技協誌
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2010 July JAPAN TAPPI JOURNAL


Vol.64, No.7 Abstracts


Report on the Results of the Follow-up Survey on JPA’s Committed Action Plan for Fiscal 2009 and Efforts against Climate Change in the Japanese Pulp and Paper Industry

Naoki Ikeda
Japan Paper Association

  The Japan Paper Association (JPA) has been actively working to save energy since 1997 when it established its “Committed Action Plan on Environment”. JPA declares its policy of restraining CO2 emissions in the action plan, and is working toward the following targets revised in September 2007:
    ・On a five-year average basis from fiscal 2008 to fiscal 2012, reduce fossil energy
      consumption per unit and fossil energy derived CO2 emission per unit by 20% and 16%
      from the level of fiscal 1990, respectively
    ・By fiscal 2012, expand forest plantation area owned or managed by the industry at home and
      abroad to 700 thousand hectares.
  Since fiscal year 1990, JPA has made a survey on the actual results of energy consumption in the year, published its results compared with that in fiscal year 1990.
  This report shows the results for fiscal year 2008, as well as energy consumption, CO2 emissions and the position of the pulp and paper industry in Japan, and information related to efforts against global warming such as trial implementation of emission trading, establishment of energy benchmarking for the Japanese pulp & paper industry and the revision of Energy Saving Act.


Improvement of Compressor Efficiency and Energy Saving Way

Hiroyuki Tanaka
Rotating Machinery Engineering Dept., Rotating Machinery Operations, IHI Corporation

  Compressors have a high percentage of consumed power in factory. So in order to save energy, it is important to enhance the efficient operation of Compressors. In this paper, the characters of widely used compressor (reciprocating, screw, turbo) are introduced, and show some energy saving way for existing turbo compressors.


Energy Saving of Air Compressors by Improving the Compressed Air Systems in the Mill

Kenji Nakano
Nichinan Mill, Oji Paper Co., Ltd.

  Each Oji mill has been working to reduce the total energy per 1.5%. In Nichinan Mill, for accomplishment, we carried out various means such as inverter and a pulley change, intermittent driving, a change to the high efficiency model, flow improvement. However, about power-saving of the compressor, we remained in omission of air improvement degree. The consumption electricity of the compressor held about 6% of the factory all consumption electricity and another one step needed the action that stepped.
  Because we were able to achieve power-saving by the plumbing line combination of the compressor and a pressure setting change this time, we introduce the summary.


The Solution for Saving Energy and Reducing CO2 by Coating of “Reflective Heat Insulation”

Teruyuki Tsuyuki and Hiromitsu Aoyama
Cosmo Trade and Service Ltd.

  Reduction of the greenhouse effect gas is taken up in worldwide as a huge environmental problem. There are a variety of actions for the problem at a governmental level, corporate level, and an individual level.
  Today, handling the environmental issue at enterprises is a factor that they can’t overlook it as a management element of the enterprise. Moreover, their action is not staying in a performance or promotion. They really set the action for the problem and the whole society has a request on them to act it immediately and to take comprehensive measures and policies.
  In this text, for corresponding the environmental issue, we take up a superior coating material for the reflective heat-insulation, “Super Therm” that is applied NASA’s ceramic technology. When the consumers adopt “Super Therm”, we will explain the feature and the effect by introducing general precaution and case example of construction.


The Activities for Energy Saving in Hachinohe Mill

Yutaka Nakayama
Mitsubishi Paper Engineering Co., Ltd.

  In Mitsubishi Paper Mills, Ltd. Hachinohe mill, we have continued various activities for energy saving. We introduce a summary of these past 5 years.
  And as one example of them, 51, 52 supercalenders, we remodeled the warm water facilities into the purpose by steam-saving and warm water displacement reduction in June, 2008. Because introduced original warm water collection / reuse flow facilities, but, as for collected warm water from two supercalenders in parallel, and reusing it, there were many problems on the real operation; a warm water flow as much as possible simple; became it, and was able to tie it to the improvement of the steam-saving, reduction of the displacement and operation characteristics. We introduce steam by this warm water facilities flow remodeling-saving and displacement reduction by this report.


The Grass Roots Effort to Enhance Energy Conservation

Jin Takami
Fuji Mill, Oji Paper Co., Ltd.

  After a rapid increase in crude oil prices, the cost of energy went up in recent years. That seriously affected our company’s bottom line because the percentage of total cost to produce papers also increased. Besides, The Japan Paper Association (JPA) declares its policy to save energy and stop global warming “We aim to reduce the fossil energy consumption per unit by 20 percentage and fossil energy derived CO2 emission per unit by 16% compared with 1990 over 5 years from 2008 to 2012” according to Committed Action Plan on Environment of September 2007. Therefore, each Oji mill has been working to reduce the total energy by 1.5 percentage. However, in 2007, the result (-1.4 percentage) not achieved the goal (-1.5 percentage) at Fuji Mill. In 2008, all of us committed to meet the goal and made concerted efforts together to take the energy-saving action. We succeeded in reducing the total energy per unit by 2.7 percentage.
  In this report, we introduce an action plan for energy conservation.


Design Concept of the Retention Aid Polymer
-The Adaptability of RX (High Performance Emulsion PAM) for Various Papermaking Conditions-

Kazuyuki Hirata
Shonan Research Center, HYMO Corporation

  The retention aid polymer contributes to efficient in the papermaking process. Recently, the retention aid polymer is getting required for the improvement of not only retention performance but also paper quality because of changing of the papermaking conditions. Ordinary retention aid polymer had limited molecular weight range because the ultra-high-molecular polymer molecules tend to entangle each other in aquatic media, and the phenomena result in the formation trouble or poor paper quality.
  We have developed the technology to adopt ultra-high-molecular polymer emulsion type ‘RX’ for the purpose of achieving both good retention and good formation. We already developed the ‘ND’ retention aid polymer, another ultra-high-molecular polymer which has made in water-water dispersion method. We introduce the characteristics of RX product with comparison to ND product.


Recent Technical Trends and Applications for Surface Sizing Agents

Kazunari Sakai
Paper Chemicals Division, Harima Chemicals, Inc.

  Waste paper recycling, grammage reduction, neutralization and closing papermaking system have been advanced from the viewpoint of environmental protection, saving resource, and energy conservation in papermaking industry. The demand for paper quality has risen as well, and the shift to surface chemical that gives the function to paper directly by coating has been advanced more and more.
  Surface sizing agent that is one of the surface chemicals is used to give paper water repellency, and various kinds are applied in order to meet the demand for paper quality. It is important for the effective surface sizing to distribute uniformly in the paper surface. The sizing efficiency is greatly influenced by not only the stability and compatibility with other chemicals in coating solution but also characteristics of base paper.
  Recently, the quality of surface sizing agent such as its sizing performance and the stability in coating solution has been demanded simultaneously due to the rise of conductivity, calcium concentration in coating solution as the shift to neutralized and highly closed papermaking system. Furthermore, the idea depends on the sizing by surface sizing agent has spread because it has been getting harder to give good efficiency by internal additives. Therefore, in this report, we state our technical attitude, approach for surface sizing. Besides, we introduce the technical trends of surface sizing in China, where the shift to coating chemicals has advanced dramatically.


Novel PAM Based Dry Strength Resins for Highly Calcium Carbonate Filled Paper

Shiro Iida, Takayuki Shimoyoshi, Takafumi Sekiguchi and Tadayoshi Oguni
Chiba Laboratory, Paper Chemical Business Division, SEIKO PMC Corporation

  Recently, domestic paper demand has declined due to global economic recession. So, Japanese paper producers made scrap-and-build plans to concentrate production on larger and more efficient machines, thus reducing costs and have proceeded with these plans to improve revenue and enhance their competitiveness. Under these difficult circumstances, polyacrylamide (PAM) based dry strength resins (DSRs) is one of the best solutions for maintaining productivity and quality of paper.
  In order to overcome these problems, we have conducted the study based on the results for several model experiments that fixations of DSRs are different for pulps and PCC, and flocculation of PCC is also different, depending on ionicity (density) and molecular weight of DSR. As a result, we have developed novel PAM based DSRs for papers filled highly with PCC, which show excellent dry paper strength and high retention without excess flocculation of PCC fillers.


Safe Operation Monitoring on Production Facilities by Thermography Utilization and Its Case Report

Tatsuhiko Sada
System Sales Department, NECAvio Infrared Technologies Co., Ltd.

  Energy problems in the manufacturing of Japan have been greatly influenced by the heat-trapping gas exhaust amount reduction rate 6% in the Kyoto Protocol. Similarly the heat-trapping gas problem in operation is an important problem and a variety of environmental measures are promoted by examining the use of the thermal recycle, RDF (refuse-derived fuel), RPF (solid making the waste plastic fuel), and the biomass energy, etc. as effective use of the resource in the paper manufacturing industry. However, it need not be said that the stability operation of the production facility and securing the efficiency driving are the necessary conditions it is safe, is safe, and piercing etc. are achieved as an enterprise.
  This time, I would like you for the people of the industry that can attend a lecture to discover the use method in the paper manufacturing industry voluntarily by explaining the principle of measurement of the infrared rays thermography and the feature, and to use it for energy conservation and the environmental progress in recent years by introducing the safety operation watch and the case about the production facility using the thermography and the data logger.


The Brand-new Beta-ray Basis Weight Gauge SB-1100 Can Be Used without Any License and Controlled Area: Certificated by MEXT

Hiraku Miyashita
Nanogray Inc.

  Before 2005 exemption level of sealed radioactive (α, β, γ-ray) source activities is 3.7MBq in Japan. Radiation protection regulation of Japan was changed and the exemption level was reduced in 2005. At that time, new certification system was started by MEXT. The certificated equipments can be used without any license and controlled area. All products of our γ-ray density meters, γ-ray level gauges and γ-ray level switches had the certifications from MEXT in 2006.
  Last year Nanogray Inc. introduce brand-new certificated β-ray basis weight gauge SB-1100; can be applied basis weight measurement of papers, nonwovens and plastic films etc.


Mechanisms on Scratch Generation on Paper Surface and Factorial Analysis of Scratch Resistance

Minoru Saito and Yasuji Kazumori
Hokuetsu Kishu Paper Co., Ltd.
Toshiharu Enomae and Akira Isogai
Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo

  Glossy coated paper is used as one of the highest quality paper products such as photographic-quality paper and high grade container boxes. However, once the surface is scratched, the resultant traces of the scratch are remarkable and detrimental to its glossy surface finish. Such scratches arise when the coated paper is subject to scratching actions in various contact situations such as a coating process, paper cutting process, and offset printing.
  The objective of this research is to investigate the surface deformation properties during scratching. Two different kinds of commercial coated paper samples (ink jet-type and offset printing-type) were prepared for comparative study. The shape of scratches that arise on paper surfaces in scratch tests were determined by using a laser scanning microscope (LSM) to evaluate the deformation mechanisms.
  The scratches were typically classified into two types; “plastic deformation” and “fracture”. The two types are different and independent, but often involved in one scratch. The cross-sectional deformation area and the onset load of crack generation were measured, and then the relationship between them was discussed. Consequently, the characteristics of scratches were influenced by the surface properties. Namely, low plastic deformation and high fracture toughness were suggested to be required for high scratch resistance.

Keywords: Scratch, Cast Coated Paper, Plastic Deformation, Fracture, Laser Scanning Microscope


Characterization of Adsorption of Charcoal from Cedar - thinned Woods as Additives for Paper

Hiroshi Fukui and Akio Takemura
Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo
Katsuhisa Tatsumi
SANYO PAPER MFG. CO., LTD.
Kensuke Kawarada
Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute

  In domestic forest in Japan, it will be more important to utilize thinned cedar and cypress woods which were planted after the World War II, as Kyoto Protocol has provided a guideline to Japan for reducing greenhouse gas emissions up to 3.8% from the forests. Although such forest thinning is used partly as chips for papers and materials for various products, some of them are used as energy source for biomass boiler. However, in near future such woods especially softwoods will increase by thinning which may promote utilization of woods for not only energy use. Moreover, from the biomass view point, wood derived products such as charcoals will be one of the good candidates for fixing carbon dioxide as written in appendix of Kyoto Protocol Target Achievement Plan. In this paper, discussion is focused on how we utilize charcoal made from cedar-thinned wood as an additive of paper comparing with that made from seeds in plum liquor plant which can be also waste materials. Cedar-thinned wood obtained university test forest and plum seeds obtained at from plum liquor manufacturer were carbonized by using modified rotary kiln type carbonization equipment at the same temperature set inside the reactor. After carbonization they were milled and their particle distributions were compared. Both powdered charcoals were analyzed to compare pore size distribution by using mercury porosimetry, adsorption property by plotting BET N2 adsorption isotherm. Then adsorptions of Vitamin C in the de-ionized-distilled water to the charcoals and H2O2 decomposition by the charcoals to see the function of catalyst were measured respectively. Also, paper samples containing 7% (w/w) of each charcoal were hand made and used for evaluation for adsorption of formaldehyde, ethylene etc., which elucidated charcoal from cedar has a potential for not only fixing carbon dioxide but also for materials for greengrocery wrapping paper, deodorizing paper and so on.

Keywords: forest thinning, charcoal, adsorption, pore size distribution, paper