2010年5月 紙パ技協誌
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2010 May JAPAN TAPPI JOURNAL


Vol.64, No.5 Abstracts


Soda Pulping Technology as a Pretreatment of Enzymatic Saccharification for Ethanol Production
-Problems during the Operation of a Pilot Plant-

Kengo Magara, Tsutomu Ikeda and Masanobu Nojiri
Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute

  In 2007, Japanese government proposed to use gasoline containing 10% ethanol from domestic biomass for all vehicles in the country, which should be achieved by 2030. To support this proposal, Forestry Agency at Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries suggested that approximately 30% of the ethanol is produced from woody biomass. Assuming that 10% of gasoline consumption corresponds is 6 million kL, ethanol from woody biomass is required to be 2 million kL. For this large ethanol production, it is necessary to have approximately 4 million tons of cellulose as a raw material. To prepare such amount of cellulose, an application of alkali cooking technology is ideal, which have been used in pulp and paper industries such as Kraft and Soda cooking processes.
  In recent years, we have already succeeded to convert alkali-cooked woody biomass, i.e. pulp, to ethanol by saccharification and fermentation at laboratory scale. Following this achievement, we designed a pilot plant for the production of ethanol from SUGI (Japanese cedar), which includes a continuous Soda-AQ cooking apparatus with the production of 0.7 t per days and a 5 m3-fermentation tank for the saccharification and fermentation with cellulose and yeast. The plant was built in Kita-Akita, Akita, and has been operated occasionally since June 2009. During the operation, it was found that there are several problems in the saccharification and fermentation processes for an efficient ethanol production, whereas no serious problem in the pulping process. These problems occur mainly during the transference and mixing of pulp suspension.

Keywords: ethanol, Soda-AQ cooking, woody biomass, plant operation


Consideration of Causticization Technologies without Heavy Oil
-Direct Causticization Technologies of the Past and the Present-

Tokiya Yaguchi
Kashiwa Laboratory, Biomaterial in Tokyo Co., Ltd.

  Instead of the causticization process using lime has been applied as the chemical recovery process of the kraft pulp production, we have been studied about the causticization processes without heavy oil consumption from the past. We have developed the ferric oxide process, titanates process, borate process and etc. and tested many pilot plant tests and mill trials with some successful results. Because some merits and demerits about energy, economy and ecology in these processes, there have been no commercial processes until now. But, new interests about the causticization processes without heavy oil consumption have been formed by the black liquor gasification technologies for the effective energy use. As over 50% of sulfur compounds in black liquor were changed to H2S and leaved to the gas phase by the black liquor gasification, the causticization demand was increased. And then, the causticizing processes using titanate and borate have been studied. Another interests have been formed by the avoiding warming climate has been occurred by increasing CO2 concentration in atmospheric air. For CO2 absorption by NaOH from atmospheric air, NaOH was changed to Na2CO3 , and then Na2CO3 need to change to NaOH for the chemical recycling. The causticization using lime and titanate have been studied. It was recognized causticization using titanate require about 50% less heat energy and about 50oC lower reaction temperature than using lime.


The Progress in Recausticizing Technology of Kraft Pulping Process

Motohiro Matsumura
Technology Div., Oji Paper Co., Ltd.

  The progress of recausticizing, one of the most important processes in Kraft pulp mill, has played a large part in the development of Kraft pulping. This paper provides outlook of trends and challenges of recausticizing process in Japan by recapitulating the role of recausticizing process in Kraft pulp process and the transition of recausticizing technologies.


Andritz Latest Recausticizing Plant Technology

Isao Samejima
Capital Systems Sales Group1, Andritz K.K., Japan

  Since 1990, the capacity of the pulp production process has become bigger and bigger and therefore the white liquor plant capacity has also become bigger. In the recausticizing process operation, the heavy metal compounds have been built up in the liquor cycle. As a result, the white liquor quality becomes low, water in the lime mud cannot be removed easily, the lime kiln fuel consumption becomes higher. More strict environmental countermeasures will be required for the treatment of the green liquor dregs. Andritz Oy has been tackling and solving the above problems. This paper will describe the Andritz latest white liquor plant technology.

Keywords: LimeGreenTM, LimeFreeTM, LimeWhiteTM, LimeDryTM, LimeKilnTM


Opportunities for Improvements in a New White Liquor Plant Project

Jiro Nakamura
Metso Paper Japan KK
Marcia Loutfi
Poyry Tecnologia Ltda.
John Middelhede
FLSmidth A/S
Alessandra Labigalini Baranovsky
Metso Paper South America
Anita Markusson
Metso Fiber Karlstad AB

  During the recent years several new mills/lines have been built in Brazil. In these projects more strict requirements have been added in White liquor plant projects. These requirements include saving in power and fuel, better working environment and lower emissions. Selected concepts from some of these projects plus possible improvements are presented in this paper such as DNCG collection, zero liquid effluent, higher lime mud dryness, advanced control system and effect of bio fuel systems. A white liquor plant for a pulp mill designed for 1.5 MADt/year, using the opportunities for improvements is described. Additional items are discussed in the study such as lime kiln cooler types and lining configuration.


The Consideration of Troubles in Recovery Process to Convert Smelt into White Liquor from the Viewpoint of Water Analysis

Hirotaka Ogasahara
Technical Section, Pulp & Paper Industry Department, Chemicals Division, Kurita Water Industries Ltd

   Kraft pulping plant has several mutual processes: pulp production, energy recovery as black liquor and chemical recycle. Therefore, if one process is in trouble, it influences the whole plant.
  Especially, it is important that the operation control of recovery process that converts smelt into white liquor. The troubles in recovery process result in decrease of pulp productivity with white liquor decrease, increase of heavy oil consumption in the lime kiln with deficient lime mud dewater, thus cause increase of CO2 discharge and production cost.
  In addition, the green liquor process operation is the most important because it is the first process of recovery process and is influenced directly by the smelt productivity and the recovery boiler efficiency with pulp productivity fluctuation.
  In this paper, we introduce the troubles and the treatments in green liquor process.

Keywords: green liquor, flocculation, scaling


Saving Heavy Oil on the Lime Kiln System with Wood Pyrolysis Gas

Yasuhiro Miyagoshi
Bio Gas Engineering sec. Eco-Power Engineering Dep., JFE Engineering Co. Ltd.

  The shift from fossil fuel to biomass for energy production is expected as promising measures to curb global warming. Firing heat recovery boilers is the most common application of woody biomass today. However, there are not many other practical uses of woody biomass because of some major limitations. One example of such limitations may be that the woody biomass heat recovery system requires specifically designed boilers, and thus existing fossil fuel fired boilers are not suitable for using biomass. Another example may be that the energy recovered from woody biomass is in the form of steam, which can be utilized only in a limited number of ways.
  Biomass gasification is to expand the usage of woody biomass by converting it to versatile gas and tar through pyrolysis -thermal decomposition- process. With this process, woody biomass can be used in existing furnaces that are unsuitable to solid woody biomass.
  The biomass gasification system of JFE Engineering Corporation, named JFE-Vlund Woody Biomass Gasification System, has its basis on the technology by Babcock & Wilcox Vlund ApS. As of today, three plants in Japan have installed the system. This article first introduces the system's features and then discusses a case study on the application of woody biomass to an existing lime kiln.

Keywords: Biomass, Woody biomass, Gasification, Lime kiln


Production of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate in a Causticizing Process

Haruo Konno
Pulp and Paper Research Laboratory, Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.

  Precipitated calcium carbonate is produced as a by-product in the causticizing process of the kraft pulping process. Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd. started to use this calcium carbonate by the causticizing process (CCC) as filler and coating pigment over 25 years ago. One of the advantages to use CCC as filler and coating pigment is that filler and coating pigment can be produced on-site in a pulp mill with pulp production. Other advantage is that the lime kiln operation can be reduced or eliminated, resulting in the reduction of fuel oil consumption in the calcination of calcium carbonate. Furthermore, the accumulation of non process elements (NPE) in the lime cycle, which has recently been the big problem, can be avoided. Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd. has established the technology to use this CCC as paper material throughout the research and the technical development for many years.
  In this paper, the outline of CCC technology is shown first. Then, filler and coating pigment production technology and the morphology-control technology developed in our company are presented. Subsequently, the influence of the implementation of CCC technology on the reduction of fuel oil consumption in the lime kiln operation and the reduction of NPE accumulation in the lime cycle and are discussed with the literature and the results of our research.

Keywords: Precipitated Calcium Carbonate, Causticizing Process, Fuel Oil Consumption, Non Process Element


The Keenest AIKAWA Energy-Saving Technology for Deinking Plant
-Re-pulping, Contaminant Removing, Upgrading-

Kazumi Fujita
Technical & Engineering Dpt., AIKAWA IRON WORKS CO., LTD.

  In accordance with argument of Energy Saving Technology for Deinking Plant, the effort of AIKAWA Iron Works Co., Ltd. is presented as outlined in the AIKAWA's standard low cost DIP system for newsprint paper.
  The AIKAWA's standard low cost DIP system for newsprint paper is the basic system of the lineup of AIKAWA low cost DIP system series for the most general DIP system for producing newsprint paper from ONP and OMG. The target of this system is to reduce the power consumption from the traditional 400-500kWH/T to 250kWH/T, to improve the yield, and to reduce the dosages of chemicals.
  In this report, AIKAWA's high consistency pulping system, ultra low power consumption MaxFlow screen, and the keenest UV-Breaker & ConiDisc hot dispersion systems, for the AIKAWA's standard low cost DIP system for newsprint paper is presented. And also, for paper strength characteristic improvement, double conical refiner type ADC with low power consumption is presented.

Keywords: High Consistency Pulper, HeliDisc Rotor, Double Dumping Screen, Drum Type Continuance Pulper vs. High Consistency Batch Operation Pulper, MaxFlow Screen, GranFlow Screen, Two-Inlet Technology, Stock Dilution Part, NW Super-1&2 Screen Cylinders, Gladiator HC (GHC) Rotor, UV-Breaker, ConiDisc Hot Dispersion System, ADC Double Conical Refiner, Finebar


Andritz Energy-saving Technologies for Deinking Process

Yosuke Takeshita
Capital System Sales Group 2, Andritz KK

  This report introduces modern energy-saving technologies for deinking system of Andritz.??At the same time, we explain the energy-recovery technology of the DIP process.?New innovated technology of fractionation of fiber is abele to reduce too much power consumption by dispersion and other energy.
  Andrizs Fibre-flo drum pulping technology has reduced the power-consumption compared with conventional high consistency pulping. And we select very low energy-consumption equipments, such as screen, disperser, cleaner for modern deinking process.
  Also now, Andritz is trying to introduce the waste, such as sludge and reject generated from all kind of deinking process, to power technology.Hereby, the amount of carbon dioxide will be able to decrease to a large extent.


Latest Technologies of Saving Energy for Deinking Process

Masakazu Eguchi
Stock Preparation Engineering Dept., Voith-IHI Paper Technology Co., Ltd.

  In Japan, recycled paper handling is getting worse. In addition, increase of energy cost and moderate increase of paper demands of both graphic and brown paper industry, caused by economy crisis, puts all papermakers in much difficult position than before. Therefore, we can assume that achieving two contradictive challenges, that is, further reduction of production cost and sustaining the same quality level, would be a significant target for papermakers.
  A DIP production process is a treasure of cost down-raw material, energy, and chemical costs are variable by the technology of each component. In this paper, we will introduce latest technologies for energy savings related to each component and system.


Outlook of World Paper Industry and Challenge of Japanese Paper Industry

Kunitaka Toyofuku
JAPAN TAPPI

  The production of paper and paperboard in the world was 390,910,000t (RISI) in 2008. Production volume was 62,310,000t in 1956, and the current production volume would increase more than about 6 times in half a century. The production volume in 2009 will largely decrease by this economic crisis. Nevertheless, from the long-term viewpoint, the demand for paper will continue to increase led by a developing country even if there is temporary recession. About world paper circumstances, I show an outline from the viewpoint of resources, energy, environment, population. At the same time, while catching a characteristic of each country, I introduce about the pulp and paper industry of various countries in the world, as the result of really visiting, hearing and seeing the spot.
  In addition, on the basis of this situation, I mention about the challenge of Japanese paper. That is to say, technological expertise which makes the industry competitive internationally is needed. At the same time, there is need to satisfy Japanese customers who demand quality.


A Report on 42nd ABTCP International Congress & Exhibition
-October 26-29, 2009 at Sao Paulo, Brazil-

Kunitaka Toyofuku
JAPAN TAPPI

  The 42nd ABTCP Pulp and Paper International Congress & Exhibition was held in Sao Paulo, Brazil on October 26-29, 2009 co-hosted by ABTCP and PI.
  There were 5 special presentations as sector overview; Crisis Impact on the Global Pulp & Paper Industry and 65 general presentations on 6 sessions.
  Reflecting of positive overseas activity of ABTCP and growth of Brazilian pulp & paper industry, there were many presentations from foreign countries. In this year affected by the economic crisis, the participant is reduced to half in comparison with the average year.
  Special mention is enormousness of the attached exhibition. In the area of 5,600m2, 165 exhibitions were performed. When it compares the scale of the exhibition area in 2006, it decreases to half area.
  After the congress, I visited Jacarei mill of Fibria just born by merger of Votorantim and Aracruz in Brazil and the production mill of bioethanol from sugar cane in Brazil.


A Report on the 22nd ISO/TC6 Meeting

Takayuki Okayama*1, Toshiharu Enomae*2 and Kyoji Kishi*3
*1 Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
*2 The University of Tokyo
*3 JAPAN TAPPI

  ISO/TC6 meeting was held on November 16-20, 2009 in Berlin, Germany. The number of registered delegates representing eighteen countries was seventy four.
  Three delegates representing Japan attended WG meetings, plenary meetings of SC2 and SC5, and TC6 plenary meeting.


Investigation of Adsorption Behaviors of Amphoteric Polyacrylamide on Pulp Fiber

Takashi Yamaguchi
Nippon Paper Industries Co.,Ltd.
Martin A. Hubbe and Orlando J. Rojas
North Carolina State University

  Adsorption behaviors of an amphoteric polyacrylamide (PAM) with and without polyaluminum chloride (PAC) on pulp fiber were studied using model surface by QCM-D (quarts crystal microbalance and dissipation monitoring) technique. Because changes in frequency (f) of QCM-D data indicate the adsorbed mass values and those in energy dissipation (D) correspond to viscoelastic properties of the adsorbed materials on the surfaces in the QCM-D apparatus, adsorption behavior of PAM and related compounds on the model surfaces, the viscoelastic nature and conformational changes of the adsorbed PAM molecules were evaluated from the f and D values of the QCM-D data. The results obtained showed that conformational changes of the PAM molecules adsorbed on the model surfaces occurred, depending on both the material of the model surfaces and PAM-related compounds added. The amounts of adsorbed PAM reached a maximum around pH7-8, which was consisted with the isoelectric point of the PAM. The f and D values revealed that the PAM molecules had extended conformation around these pHs. Although detailed and accurate interpretation of the QCM-D data obtained was difficult, the model experiments obtained in this study provided significant information concerning adsorption behavior of PAM molecules on pulp fibers in papermaking process.

Keywords: QCM-D (quarts crystal microbalance and dissipation monitoring), amphoteric polyacrylamide, paper strength