|2010 April JAPAN TAPPI JOURNAL
Vol.64, No.4 Abstracts
An Afforestation of Northern District of Brazil
-The Operation of AMCEL-
Forestry Science Research Laboratory, Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.
Research and Development Department, Amapa Florestal e Celulose S.A. (AMCEL)
Amapa Florestal e Celulose S.A. (AMCEL) is carrying out the eucalyptus afforestation which the total area is approximately 300,000 hectares in the savanna zone of the southwestern Amapa state, northern Brazil. The features of outstanding AMCEL are the flat and collected landed property, the distance to port, abundant precipitation, and warm temperature. However, the growth rate of the clones which was introduced from the other companies in early stages of the eucalyptus plantation of AMCEL was very poor, because those clones could not adapt greatly to different environment from a original district.
Therefore, AMCEL began the original selection breeding program and started development of the clone which was adapted for the environment of the landed property. The parent population of a breeding consists of two groups, one is the individuals which showed growth superior in a own plantation by seeds, and the other is the clone which brought by exchange from other afforestation companies. The clone which was excellent in tolerance for disease or growth was selected from these. And all were changed to a new clone from 2007, and growth improved greatly.
AMCEL continues development of a selection breeding and forestry technology, and aims at improvement in an amount of growth further.
The Operating Experience after Continuous Digester Improvement
Hachinohe Mill, Mitsubishi Paper Mills Limited
Hachinohe Mill, Mitsubishi Paper has the capacity 900,000 ton of papers per year. We have one continuous digester and four batch digester to produce kraft pulp in Hachinohe Mill. The continuous digester can supply about 80% of the kraft pulp produced at the mill.
We improved the continuous digester to increase production in August, 2007 and introduced the new chip bin and other equipment.
This report is described about the operating experience after continuous digester improvement.
The Control Technology of Ishinomaki PM N6 Drive
Ishinomaki Mill, Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.
The PM N6 at Ishinomaki Mill, Nippon Paper Industries started up on November 1, 2007 and has been producing LWC and SLWC (Bitokoshi). This machine has 1,600m/min maximum wire speed and 9,450mm of wire width with on-line blade coater and calender. The machine is composed of the equipment of domestic and overseas manufacturers. And main supplier for the PM is Metso which has good reputation with large coated paper machines all over the world. With Cutting edge technology of the manufacturers and production experience of us, we achieved high speed operation earlier than planned. It should be considered that drive control system contributed to this successful and stable operation; auto tension control system at all part after pre-dryer, stability of tension by speed responsiveness improvement of coater backing roll after starting coating, speed fluctuation control which reduces paper break after the coater blade is touched or opened during high speed operation.
On PM N6, Nippon Paper introduces the first all Siemens driving system as domestic paper manufacturer. This report describes latest Siemens drive control system technology and its contribution for steady operation of PM N6.
Operating Experience of Niigata N9 Paper Machine
-Shifting from Solving Problem to Stable Production-
No.7 Production Department, Niigata Mill, Hokuetsu Kishu Paper Co., Ltd.
Hokuetsu Kishu Paper N9 had started trial run since June 2008 and has started commercial production since September 2008. N9 has reached the original production plan 1000t/day and the operation has been quite smooth as the A3 paper machine.
N9 is the A3 paper machine as an on-machine coater based on the on-machine coater technology of our experienced N6, N7 and N8 in Niigata mill and a new on-machine calendar technology.
We reported our operating experience just after the start-up at last annual meeting., then this time, would like to report our knowledge we have got form our experience since commercial production.
Although big reduction of the number of running days by the late-2000s recession in the world, we have taken measure to solve primary problems and get stable operation. This paper reports our successful case studies so far.
A Summary and Start-up Experience of Biomass Boiler
Takaoka Mill (Nomachi), Chuetsu Pulp and Paper Co., Ltd.
We Takaoka (Nomachi) mill produce fine paper, coated paper, coated board and Kraft paper from our own making KP and DIP by operating 5 paper machine and 1 off-coater machine. We also dedicate in energy conservation and environmental preservation accordance with the ISO 14001 environmental management scheme. Main power sauce was RB generation and electricity purchasing from Hokuriku Electric Power Company. RB fuel is only fuel oil and black liquor. At this stage we have installed up to dated biomass boiler in June 2009 to achieve oil-less operation, converting from fossil fuel to reduce CO2 gas emission and energy cost.
Now let me introduce the summary of equipment and our installment experiences.
Biomass Boiler Commercial Operating Report
Kishu Mill, Kishu Paper Co., Ltd.
Kishu-Factory has been promoting energy saving from the first. Furthermore, we are making a concerted effort to control emissions such as greenhouse gas and so on by improving saving energy and production efficiency after the division of Kyoto Protocol. However, we have not achieved the goal, reduction of greenhouse gas, due to increasing energy consumption of environmental equipment such as Elemental Chlorine Free (ECF) plant, waste paper treatment plant and so on. It is reported by Measures for Controlling Global Warning Plan.
Wind power generation, geothermal power generation and biomass gas turbine are remarkable technology for reduction green gas. The target date of 2010 is coming soon, however, there are many issues in running factory and profitability.
Kishu-Factory pays attention to waste wood, bark and waste plastic that have been scrapped. We planed a sharp cut of greenhouse gas by placing biomass boiler and stopping existing oil boiler. This is a report of biomass boiler commercial operating since July 2008.
Our biomass boiler has achieved 39% reduction in CO2 generated by fossil fuel in Kishu-Factory from previous year in spite of some troubles. From now on we will make greater efforts on reduction of CO2 generated by fossil fuel and on reduction in cost by making of ash soil and reducing of coal consumption.
Technical Approach to Resolve Soot and Smoke Issues
Environment & Safety Dept., Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.
From June to July 2007, a voluntary internal investigation carried out at Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd., revealed that soot and smoke emissions at six mills exceeded the standards of the Air Pollution Control Law.
This issue was announced by Nippon Paper, on July 2, 2007. Since then, the company has worked to strengthen environmental management and regain trust by implementing measures to prevent recurrence. To prevent such problems from happening again, extensive preventive steps were taken with both facilities /management and compliance aspects.
The status of facilities /management aspect is reported below this time.
Progress in Recycling by the New Classified Documents Process Facility in Soka Mill
Soka Mill, Nippon Daishowa Paperboard Co., Ltd.
From the resource utilization point of view, the paper manufacturing industry tackled the wastepaper recycling for a long time. Recycling applications of the wastepaper in Nippon Paper Group have improved day by day in various wastepaper grades of use.
To achieve further improvement of the utilizing rate, Soka mill of Nippon Daishowa Paperboard started the new recycling facility processing for classified documents from the various offices. Being equipped with the high consistency pulper, the facility including storage space is perfectly isolated with solid walls and PIN-code doors to keep its confidentiality. This paper shows the feature of the facility and the recent operation results.
Creation of Fine Paper from Hardwood Bleached Sulfate Pulp (Part I)
This report is a brief history about the creation of the fine paper from hardwood bleached sulfate pulp. Although the sulfate process (KP) was introduced into Japan in the middle of the 1920s, the research and development efforts had been concentrated on sulfite process (SP) during the war. However, the members of Kyoto University found advantageous nature of KP over SP and announced it to the world through the journals and the patents. After the World WarU, in order to reestablish Yufutsu factory (Kokusaku Pulp Ind. Co., Ltd.), Mr. Shigeo Mizuno decided to introduce a evolutional plan, in 1948, to produce the fine paper from the hardwood bleached pulp through the sulfate process. In those days, the hardwood was not used as the raw material for the fine paper, because the paper from the hardwood was thought to have insufficient strength for printing and wrapping. However, Mr. Bunzou Shimura, the partner of Mr. Mizuno, thought that, if prepared properly, the hardwood sulfate pulp would make the paper excellent in its properties. Although the authorities of GHQ insisted to introduce the semichemical process which was valued highly in the U.S. at that time, Mr. Mizuno and his partner persisted on introduction of the initial plan regarding the pulping process. As a result of painstaking efforts, industrial scale production employing hardwood bleached KP without any softwood pulp started for the first time in the world at Yufutsu mill in April 1952.
Estimation of Kraft and Acid Sulfite Cooking Methods as Processes of Bioethanol Production
Shiho Takahashi, Keishi Tanifuji, Akiko Nakagawa-izumi and Hiroshi Ohi
Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba
Technical and Development Division, Hokuetsu Kishu Paper Co., Ltd.
We estimated the carbon content of softwood black liquor during kraft cooking to calculate its higher heating value and compared it with that of hardwood liquor. The bioenergy obtained from the black liquor of softwood chips consisting of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) and Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) was 12.4 MJ/kg wood, which was approximately 3 MJ/kg wood higher than that of acacia (Acacia mearnsii) wood.
For Japanese larch sapwood, acid sulfite cooking had a better cooking response than alkaline cooking. The resolution ratios of the acid sulfite pulps obtained by enzymatic treatment were higher than those of the alkaline pulps, and were independent of the kappa numbers. The glucose yield from an acid sulfite pulp with a kappa number of 64.3 was much better than those from alkaline pulps. When acid sulfite cooking was carried out for a longer time at a low pH, the cellulose in the pulp degraded into spent sulfite liquor (SSL). Monosaccharide, mainly consisting of glucose (7.2% on wood weight), were obtained from the SSL. Therefore, it was shown that acid sulfite cooking was a more appropriate method for easily producing glucose and ethanol from both pulps and SSL than alkaline cooking.
Keywords: glucose, ethanol, cellulose, lignin, softwood, hardwood
Papermaking of Disintegrated Fibers of TEMPO-mediated Oxidized Pulps
Technical Division, Yamashin Filter Corp.
Tsuguyuki Saito, Toshiharu Enomae and Akira Isogai
Department of Biomaterial Sciences,Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences,
The University of Tokyo
When a hardwood bleached kraft pulp (HBKP) was oxidized by the TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxy radical)-mediated oxidation system under aqueous conditions, carboxylate groups were formed by the oxidation of the C6 primary hydroxyl groups. Aqueous slurries of partly fibrillated fibers could be prepared by disintegration of the oxidized pulps in de-ionized water using a domestic blender. After the disintegration, the mean fiber width of the pulp was unchanged, but the mean fiber length was decreased with the increase of NaClO added in the oxidation. Handsheets were prepared from disintegrated fibers of the TEMPO-oxidized pulps using tap water. The handsheets prepared from the oxidized pulp with NaClO of 5 mmol/g-pulp had low thickness and high paper density compared with the reference sheets prepared from the original HBKP, and had quite low air permeability. The diameter size distribution of micro pores in the handsheets measured by using a capillary flow porositmeter corresponds to the result of density measurement of the handsheets. The sheet formation became more heterogeneous by accelerated flocculation in papermaking, when the TEMPO-oxidized and then disintegrated fibers were used with tap water. Scanning electron microscopic observation combined with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer revealed that the handsheets prepared with tap water contained significant amounts of calcium by ion exchange from sodium carboxylate groups in the oxidized fibers during the papermaking process with tap water.
Keywords: TEMPO-mediated oxidation, papermaking, hardwood bleached kraft pulp, disintegration, nano-fiber, permeability