2008N12@pZ
[vgpy[W]
JAPAN TAPPI JOURNAL December 2008


Vol.62 No.12 Abstracts


Misunderstandings in Environment Conservation

Tokuji Murata
Recyclable Resource Research Institute, Inc.

  Many activities aiming to conserve environment are going on in Japan these days. There, however, are projects and researches which are based on misunderstandings and are inconsistent with environment conservations.
  This paper demonstrates that some of research concepts on carbon dioxide recycling and its reduction are not right for preventing global warning. Obtaining hydrogen by electrolyzing sea water is not feasible and carbon dioxide should not be reduced by hydrogen. Getting hydrogen from metal does not mean the reduction of carbon dioxide.
  Regarding biofurel, only half of grape sugar (glucose) is converted to ethanol and the rest is wasted as carbon dixide. Biodiesel fuel also has problems. Then, prospect for synthetic petrolium and wasted wood utilization are discussed.


Status and Trend of Environmental Laws and Regulations

Shigenori Imamiya
Environmental Management Department, Oji paper Co., Ltd.

  Although many environmental laws and regulations have been enacted and put in force mainly to tighten the control since the 1990s, this trend could continue for the duration.
  The focus of attention to come in environmental laws and regulations could be placed on (a) energy saving and global warming curbing countermeasures, (b) the chemical substance management and (c) waste and recycling affairs. Especially, it is expected to introduce a drastic reform for gWaste Disposal and Public Cleansing Lawh because there are some situations taking place, which interfere with adequate recycling.
  In this environmental seminar, the environmental laws and regulations are presented, which have been revised for the past several years and have to be watched closely.
  It can be said that for ensuring compliance to environmental laws and regulations, it is necessary to understand the purpose and outline of the laws and regulations, and raise the level of efforts.


Overview of EU REACH Regulation and REACH Compliance Activity in FUJIFILM

Jun Yamaguchi
FUJIFILM Corporation, Ecology & Quality Management Control Div.

  The new European Chemicals regulation REACH has entered into force June 1, 2007.
The aim of REACH is to reduce risks related to substances across the supply chains and forces many new responsibilities (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction) to manufacturers and importers of substances.
  Outside Europe, now, there needs a new social infrastructure to be compliant with the new requirements, especially, for those to inform the content chemicals information in article along the whole supply chain.
  This article is an overview of the REACH regulation and REACH compliance activity of JAMP (Joint Article Information Promotion Consortium) and the activity in FUJIFILM Corporation.


World Topics over the Paper Industry
-Mainly about Environment-

Kunitaka Toyofuku
JAPAN TAPPI

  A North American decline, North European strength and Chinese rise are remarkable nowadays if we make a survey of world paper industry. It will be necessary for the paper industry to support resources and environment in future.
  As for the environment, we must correspond to reduction of the fossil fuel for prevention of global warming, promotion of recycle and reuse of the wastepaper and issue of forest. There is much misunderstanding about forest decrease and the afforestation of industry, and it is necessary that we, engaged in paper industry, can clean peoplefs misunderstanding.
  I introduce the present status of Chinese paper industry having a big influence to Japanese it, with the second 2008 Japan-China technology exchanges symposium held in Shangdong Jinan City recently. Furthermore, I introduce too about the conditions of a country and paper industry of India attracting attention next to China, from the experience that participated in Paperex2007 held in 2007.


Application of Methane Fermentation Technology for Waste Water Treatment

Kaoru Hamada
Pulp & Paper Research Lab., Research and Development Division, Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.
Hideaki Fujita
Iwakuni Mill, Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.
Masahiro Murata
Yufutsu Mill, Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.

  The methane fermentation is known as the useful technology for the waste water treatment. The technology has some advantages, such as the energy recovery of biogas from organic compounds in waste water and the lower sludge generation compared to the aerobic treatment. After the improvement of treatment efficiency with UASB method, this technology has been used by various kinds of industries including food production, while in the paper industry, it has been introduced mainly in Europe.
  Nippon paper industries has launched the waste water treatment facilities with the methane fermentation technology at Yufutsu mill and Iwakuni mill, in 2004 and 2005 respectively.@These facilities have been utilized for the treatment of condensate from black liquor, for the first time in Japan.


Principle of NOx Formation and Reduction Technology and Stabilization of NOx Emission

T. Yokoshiki and Y. Taguchi
Boiler Engineering Section, Boiler Engineering Department, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.

  An example of the inappropriate facilities management of the Air Pollution Control Law and the Water Pollution Prevention Law had occurred in a part of enterprise which installed boiler facilities for electricity and power in 2007, and it became the socially big concern.
  From the viewpoint of laws and ordinances observance enforcement, investigating Committee of Ministry of the Environment and investigation of every enterprise have been performed, and analysis of the example and a future action guidance have been reported.
  A nitrogen oxide (it is called as NOx) is a material regulated as one of the soot of the Air Pollution Control Law. In the reports of investigating Committee of Ministry of the Environment and investigation of every enterprise, there are many inappropriate example of NOx emission. Although a principle of the NOx generation and the NOx reduction technology have been published by boiler makers and reported as various public intellect documents in the past, in this document, we will present here in order to help to obey the laws and environment subject from now on.


Sumitomo Chemicalfs Sustainable Management

Tsuneo Nara
Responsible Care Office, Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd.

  Sumitomo Chemical has long undertaken voluntary Responsible Care activities to ensure the performance of its products in terms of the safety, environment, health and quality throughout their life cycles. These voluntary activities are undertaken not only at Sumitomo Chemical, but also extend globally to include our Group companies both in Japan and overseas.
  The Company takes this beyond the concept of Responsible Care in its active efforts to promote Sustainable Chemistry, by  which we endeavor to raise the overall value and benefit to society of our products as well as their economic value-added.
  We are promoting CSR-based management (Sustainable management) that contributes to society with the products and services created through its practice of Sustainable Chemistry, while giving due consideration to Responsible Care, the needs of society, and economic requirements in all aspects of its operations.
  Our companyfs approach to Sustainable management and Responsible Care activities will be outlined in this document.


Desirable Measures against Global Warming Issue

Toshinori Kojima
Department of Materials and Life Science, Seikei University

  The Kyoto Protocol came into effect in Feb. 2005, by the ratification of Russia. But, the target term is 2008-2012, and now the year. Why it took so long time? All of the measures for global warming problem, especially carbon dioxide problem, are classified into; a) change in primary energy source, b) effective use of energy, c) reduction in CO2 emission from other than energy, d) CO2 recovery and storage or fixation, e) CO2 absorption from atmosphere, e.g., afforestation, and f) policy and economic options. And the various measures as above were classified into two categories; regrettable and no-regrettable. In the course of the present evaluation, we should take resources problems as discussed above and other environmental problems into account. Taking these conditions into account, a tax to all virgin resources is thought to be most suitable, though critical evaluation of amount of resources is essential.


Report on TAPPI Advanced Coating Fundamentals Symposium f08

Masanori Kawashima
Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd., Pulp & Paper Research Laboratory

  TAPPI Advanced Coating Fundamentals Symposium f08 was held in Delta Centre-Ville hotel, Montreal, QC, Canada from June 11 to 13. There were 11 sessions and 38 presentations in this conference. This international conference attracted over 100 participants from around the world. I had an opportunity to join the conference and made a summary of interesting 9 presentations in this report.


The 2008 Pan Pacific Conference/Control Systems 2008
-June 16-18, 2008 in Vancouver, Canada-

Yoshitatsu Mori*1 and Kunitaka Toyofuku*2
*1Oji Paper Co., Ltd.
*2JAPAN TAPPI

  2008 Pan Pacific Conference incorporated in Control Systems 2008 (16-18 June) was held under the PAPTACfs auspices in Vancouver, Canada. On behalf of JAPAN TAPPI, Mr. Toyofuku, executive director of JAPAN TAPPI, attended the conference. Pan Pacific Conference is held every two years in the rotation of 8 countries of Pacific Rim. The conference was held in Seoul, Korea in 2006. As it was incorporated in Control Systems Conference in this time, the presentations from the field of process control were often found. At the 2008 conference, 3 Japanese speakers attended. A summary of Japanese presentations and other interested ones are described.
  The representative from PAPTAC (Canada), JAPAN TAPPI (Japan), Korea TAPPI (Korea), APPITA (Australia), Taiwan TAPPI were in the attendance at the conference, but TAPPI (USA), TAPPIP (Philippines), CTIP (Chile) were not.


A Report on the Fall Meeting of the 2008 TAPPI Research Management Committee

Hideki Fujiwara
Nippon Paper-Pak Co., Ltd.

  The 2008 fall meeting of the TAPPI Research Management Committee was held from August 20 - 23 in Quebec, Canada. On the way from Montreal to Quebec City by bus, tours were taken to FTInovations PAPRICAN, CIPP (Centre Integreen Pates et Papiers), CIC (Centre International de Couchage). It was impressive that high speed pilot paper machines and a coater were well equipped in such facilities. In Quebec City, meetings were held in two and a half days. Topics discussed were highly bio-refinery oriented.


Development of a New Cooking System using Highly Concentrated Polysulfide (I)
-Effects of Liquor to Wood Ratio and Sulfide Concentration during Hardwoods Cooking-

Keigo Watanabe, Yasunori Nanri
Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd., Pulp and Paper Research Lab.
Yasuhiro Okamoto and Masahiro Shimizu
Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd., Ishinomaki Mill
Hiroshi Ohi
Graduate School of Life and Environmental Science, University of Tsukuba

  To develop a new cooking system with highly concentrated polysulfide (PS) from the white liquor (WL), effects of liquor to wood (L/W) ratio on hardwood pulp yield, kappa number and screened reject were investigated.
  In industrialized technology available today, PS liquors are produced by air oxidation of kraft WL in the presence of a catalyst. Unfortunately, air oxidation promotes side reactions that limit the maximum concentration of PS in the produced liquor, which in turn limits the potential gain in pulp yield.
  PS and Na2S concentrations are predominantly important for PS cooking. However, their concentrations in ordinary lab cooking using static autoclaves were often lower than mill continuous digesters because static lab cooking needs higher L/W to soak wood chips in autoclaves.
  In this study rotating autoclaves were employed to realize lower L/W ratio cooking system relevant to the one in mill hardwood continuous digester.
  The result shows yield gain of PS cooking became obvious at higher initial PS concentrations (1.7-4 g/l as S) in the condition with reduced screened rejects. Also, initial Na2S concentrations on cooking have to be kept more than 6-9 g/l as Na2O, to avoid increase of kappa numbers and screened rejects.
  PS have to be produced from Na2S in the WL to keep Na+ and S2- balance in WL recovery cycle. To obtain the optimal effects of mill PS cooking, efficient and self sustained PS production methods with minimum Na2S loss are desired.

Keywords: Polysulfide, Sulfidity, Na2S, Pulp yield


A Comparison between Oken Air Resistance-Smoothness Tester and Related Testers
in Relation to Measured Values

Tadashi Kano
JAPAN TAPPI

  In Japan, Oken tester is widely used for the measurement of smoothness and air resistance for paper and paperboard. This instrument developed in Japan gives the same measured values as those obtained by Bekk smoothness tester and Gurley air-permeance tester within seconds for most papers, respectively.
  As for standards, Oken tester is only adopted as a JAPAN TAPPI Test Method, while other related testers are adopted as ISO standards and Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS). JAPAN TAPPI has been working to publish JIS of Oken methods for both smoothness and air resistance. Also, JAPAN TAPPI has started a work for new work item proposals of Oken methods as ISO standards.
  Since Oken tester is not well-known among Western countries, it is necessary to show a comparison between Oken tester and related testers in relation to measured values.
  In this paper, various kinds of paper samples were tested using Oken tester, Bekk tester, Print-surf tester and Gurley tester.