2006年7月 紙パ技協誌

 
World Market Pulp Supply/Demand & Chinese Recovered Paper

Minoru Arai and Takayuki Noma
Pulp Dept., Marubeni Corporation
Nobuyuki Ihara
Marubeni Paper Recycle Co., Ltd.

 Recently the circumstances surrounding pulp suppliers have been dramatically changing in terms of energy cost, exchange rate, wood chip and so on. Looking at the supply side, we would see rapid expansion of hardwood pulp mainly in South America. World hardwood supply will turn out to be more than softwood supply. As for the demand side, China is considered to remain the big market for market pulp. Considering about production cost for pulp suppliers, they have been suffering from sharp rise of raw materials and fuel, currency appreciation against US dollar, which reduce their profits obviously. It is reported that lots of Canadian pulp suppliers had to shut down their mills this year.
 The demand of recovered paper from Chinese paper mills has been increasing dramatically, and it has given big influence on Japanese market as China is major export market for Japan. China has further expansion plans for paper and paperboard and will consume more recovered paper. In order to secure the materials, China need to collect more recovered paper from the domestic market.


Recycling Potentials of Kraft Pulps Prepared from Planted Eucalypt and Acacia Woods

Takayuki Okayama
Division of Ecosciences, Institute of Symbiotic Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology

 When a kraft pulp is repeatedly wetted in water and dried for several times, the strength properties of handsheets are considerably deteriorated. The repeated wetting and drying of a recycling process affects the microstructure of the pulp fibers. The shrinkage of internal pore structure under recycling was not easily reversed.
 Thirty-three 9-year-old fast-growing individual trees of Eucalyptus globulus planted in Australia were examined to investigate variations in pulp fiber and handsheet properties during recycling. Large between-tree variations in the thirty-three individual tree pulps were observed in tensile strength of handsheet during recycling. The fiber wall thickness and the Runkel ratio well reflected the shrinkage configuration of the pulp fibers during recycling.
 Tensile indices at expected recycling were calculated by nonlinear regression analysis for each pulp. Expected tensile index of handsheet at extended recycling were closely related to the sheet density after five recycles, the fiber swelling of original pulp and fiber morphological characteristics.
 Three species of 11-year-old fast growing Acacia woods, namely Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium x Acacia auriculiformis (hybrid), planted in Malaysia were also examined to investigate variations in handsheet properties during recycling.
 Variations in tensile strength of handsheet of the hybrid during recycling were similar to those of Acacia mangium. On the other hand, handsheet from Acacia auriculiformis had lower tensile strengths during recycling than other two species. The hybrid showed higher expected tensile indices, compared with other two species.

Keyword: recycling, Eucalyptus globulus, Acacia mangium, hybrid, fiber characteristics, paper
      strength, nonlinear regression


Operating Experience of Kraft Pulp Mill
"Plantation-grown Eucalyptus"

Toshiharu Yatomi
Technical and Industrial Department, CENIBRA
Alexandre Lanna
Production, CENIBRA

 Cenibra (Celulose Nipo-Brasileira S.A.) is one of the largest producers of short-fiber bleached Eucalyptus pulp. The company was founded on September 1973. In July 2001, Japanese company, "JBP" became the only shareholder of Cenibra.
 Cenibra's total area is 234,827ha, splitter in cultivated lands 123,398 ha with E. Grandis, E. Urograndis (hybrids E. Urophylla and E. grandis) and preservation and legal reserve 92,087 ha. The existing production capacity is 940,000 ADt with an expansion project for 200,000 ADt up-grade schedule to be start-up in early 2007.
 The increase of production and quality stability needs as a continuous target, create a demand for wood segregation. Many parameters and alternative methods has been tried to improve process control.
 In this paper,the outline of Cenibra is introduced and mil operating experience of pulp processes is reported.


Latest Recycling and Upgrading Technology of Low Grade of Raw Material in Stock Preparation

Masakazu Eguchi
Stock Preparation Dept. of Engineering and Development Div.
Voith IHI Paper Technology Co., Ltd.

 Characteristics of raw materials in waste paper recycling system for paper making are changing to lower quality in the world according to recent higher recycling rate of waste paper, progress of printing technology, more usage of Eucalyptus and acacia pulp and shifting to planted wood from natural resources for pulping material.
Therefore, more innovated and appropriated stock preparation technologies are requested to treat such low grade of raw materials and to improve property of the paper and also runnability of the paper machine.
 We, Voith IHI Paper Technology (VIPT), will state and introduce the current raw material condition in the world and VIPT's latest stock preparation technology for solution of your existing system and planning of your new project.


Required Technologies for Expansion of Use of Low Grade Furnish

Takeshi Kanazawa
Aikawa Iron Works Co., Ltd.

 The use of the low grade furnish has been needed with the rise of the waste paper availability in the world. However, the low grade furnish contains a lot of various foreign materials and various printed matters with hard-to-remove-ink. This paper reports the technical questions and measures regarding the expansion of the use of such low grade furnish as the stock of paper and paper-board.


Stickies Control Agent for Recycling Paper by OPTIMYZE

Motoaki Kimura
Buckman Laboratories K.K.

 As the demand for recovered fiber rises, the quality inevitably deteriorates. Recycled paper systems contain deposits called stickies that are composed of adhesives and other organic contaminants. These stickies can produce an off-quality product, an interruption of paper production, and increased landfill costs and buildup of waste materials. We have found a way to save our customers these production and end-product headaches and we can do it with chemistries that are environmentally neutral as well as safer for workers.
 The Optimyze Stickies Control family of products are based in part upon newly engineered, patented enzymes. The Optimyze products are specially formulated, using patented stabilization technology, for use in furnishes composed of mixed office waste, old newspapers, and old corrugated containerboard. Their specific chemistry has been developed to break up and detackify stickies particles and thus decrease the amount of contaminants that can be deposited in recycle furnishes.
 Optimyze is a unique enzyme technology that replaces more hazardous chemistries and facilitates the use of recycled papers, which received Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award from United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) in 2004.


Recent Large Aker Kvaerner Pulp Mill Projects

Sevn-Erik Olsson
Kvaerner Pulping AB
Tomoyuki Tezuka
Kvaerner Pulping KK

 There is a clear trend in today's pulping industry. New facilities are mainly built in Asia and South America, where access to fast growing raw material and other production factors give favorable level of costs. Operations in the rest of the world mainly focus on modernizations of existing equipment and mills. This development also reflects Aker Kvaerner's operations over the recent years.
 In this paper, the "giant fiberlines" especially for Asia and South America will be focused on.


The Latest Andritz Chemical Fiberlines, Mechanical Pulping Systems and Recycled Fiber Processes Delivered in China and South America

Kanji Hagiwara, Yosuke Takeshita and Tamio Fukuzawa
Andritz K.K., Japan

 Andritz has delivered quite a number of pulping systems in South America since 2000 and also has delivered many Mechanical pulping systems and Recycled Fiber (DIP) Processes in China over the last 10 years. The latest Andritz technology for the chemical fiberline consists of the DFLS Lo-Solids™ Cooking technology and the Fractional washing DD Washers throughout the brown stock washing and ECF bleaching provided with Ahlstage™ acid treatment process. The latest Andritz mechanical pulping technology encompasses the PRC-APMPTM Process and RTSTM-TMP refining of energy saving. These processes have been successfully operated since the start-ups and the customer mills have been satisfied with the performances.
 This paper introduces briefly the advantages and performances of the processes that Andritz has delivered in China and South America.

Keywords: DFLS (Down Flow Lo-Solids™) Cooking, TurboFeed™ System, Fractional washing
       DD Washers, PRC-APMP™, RTSTM-TMP, Ahlstage™


Utilization of Used Paper Cores and Tubes on Manufacturing Corrugating Medium

Takefumi Nakanishi
Production Department, Kanazu Mill, Rengo Co., Ltd.

 Rising demands for environmental protection and resource conservation in the recent years have accelerated the creation of a recycling-oriented society, steadily increasing the Japanese waste paper utilization rate to 60% in 2003. Meanwhile, demands of variety functional papers with enhanced moisture resistance have grown as they offer greater convenience to consumers. These functional papers containing used paper cores and tubes raise serious issues to the paper industries as ordinary equipments at mills can not utilize them as regular waste paper. Also, functional papers consume a large amount of electricity at pulping process and most of them are disposed of as industrial waste. The use of such hard-to-recycle waste paper, however, is an issue that must be solved as society expects increased waste paper utilization rate in the future.
 Rengo Kanazu mill started its operation in 1961 and currently has two corrugating medium machines. In order to promote waste paper utilization, the mill has been using 100% wastepaper since 1993 for manufacturing of corrugating medium. In order to meet current requirement to utilize hard-to-recycle waste paper, the mill installed a new processing facility for used paper cores and tubes in 2004.
 The new facility does not require additional chemicals or heat. Used paper cores and tubes are put into the new facility in ‘as is' condition and the output is sent to the regular pulper, and is treated in the same process as regular waste paper.
The final products manufactured in the stated conditions were examined and they showed no negative effects on both table test and real machine test. It is concluded that the facility can be operated without any problems.


Influences to the Operation of Bleached Hardwood Kraft Pulp by the Increase of Plantation Wood Chips

Kazuhiko Ando
Pulp Production Dep., Ishinomaki Mill, Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.

 Recently, in order to reduce the green house gas the plantation is getting increased in all over the world. And also there is growing tendency toward to conservation of natural forest and wildlife. Therefore the percentage of plantation wood chip supply is getting increased at typical Japanese kraft pulp mills. The tendency like this will be accelerated in the nearly future. To correspond to the change of wood chip property is one of important missions for the pulp & paper industry. Therefore the industry is needed to operate with various ideas.
 Ishinomaki LBKP plant produces Bleached Hardwood Kraft Pulp. The digester runs on the conventional cooking and the bleaching sequence is D-Eop-D. The process flow is quite typical form. On the experience of Ishinomaki LBKP plant, it is found out that the plantation wood chips bring on the lower cooking & bleaching cost but the worse plugging in a 2ndary knotter and worse vacuum on bleach filters than the natural wood chips. The plant installed the optimized procedure of wood chip mixing and some operational ideas as the measures.
Including them, this report introduces some influences by the increase of plantation wood chips and some measures for them at Ishinomaki LBKP plant.

Keywords: Plantation chips, Vacuum filter drainage issue, Scaling issue


The Operating Experiences Using Low Bulk Wood Chips

Ryuuichi Suzumi
Niigata Mill, Hokuetsu Paper Mills, Ltd.

 Hokuetsu Paper Niigata Mill produces ECF bleaching kraft pulp via two fiber manufacturing lines that started up in 1989, and the another in 1998. The 95% of total purchased woodchips are cultivated and the remains are from domestic natural forest. The higher forested chip ratio takes great advantages of pulp yields, black liquor yields and chemical consumption. On the other hand, an unstable digesting operation may come out that is caused by the low bulk planted woodchips.
 In this paper, the key points of the continuous digesting operation under using low bulk woodchips are reported.


The Influence for Operational Factors by the Diversification of the Wood Species

Tamotsu Morikoshi
Sendai Mill, Chuetsu Pulp and Paper Co., Ltd.

 The change in operational factors due to the increase in ratio of imported wood chips and diversification of wood species by afforestation, has recently become a problem. It is thought that in the future as diversification of wood species advances, there is a possibility of it becoming difficult to continue to stabilize operation.
 The decline of the bulk specific gravity of the hardwood chip and changed bleach-ability of the chip combination aggravates productivity at Sendai Mill. In addition to the pitch trouble often experienced due to chip combination the pitch trouble with the NBKP/LBKP switch operation has especially become a serious problem. This report shows the influence of the change in chip combination of hardwood or softwood on the operation, and operational experience in the production of bamboo pulp, which recently has been tackled.


The Relationship between the Character of Plantation Wood Chips and Pulp Properties

Yosuke Uchida
Research Development Div. Pulp & Paper Research Laboratory, Oji Paper Co., Ltd.

 The relationship between the character (morphology, chemical composition) of plantation wood chips (E. globlus, E. nitens, E. grandis, E. camaldlensis, E. exerta, A. mangium, A. auriculiformis, A. hybrid (A. mangium×A. auriculiformis)) and pulp properties was investigated. The results showed that fiber morphology in wood chips has a great influence on sheet properties, and that the lower lignin content in wood chips gives less energy for pulping and higher pulp yield. However, there were some exceptions to relationship between pulping efficiency and lignin content. In order to evaluate pulp properties of new wood chips, it is necessary to make pulping tests and measure the fiber morphology.


Reports of 92nd PAPTEC Annual Meeting

Takanori Miyanishi
Longview Office of Nippon Paper Industries and North Pacific Paper Corporation

 Canada is the largest forest products exporting nation in the world. All this resulted in 92nd PAPTEC Annual Meeting in Montreal during February 6th-9th, 2006 that brought together hundreds of people working to support the industry and to revitalize it as it emerges from the challenges that have recently beset it. The Standing Committees sponsored 42 sessions featuring 249 technical presentations on a wide range of subjects. The comprehensive program attracted the largest audience in the past three years with a total of 947 delegates. Several papers in the fields of mechanical pulping, bleaching, paper chemistry and papermaking are introduced in this article.


Evaluation of Water Based Gravure Ink Penetration into Coated Papers by ESCA

Yasushi Ozaki and Michiharu Uchida
Research Institute, National Printing Bureau

 Ink absorption on coated paper was investigated using ESCA. The relative intensities (Cu2p/C1s) and (Si2p/C1s) were measured by ESCA. The relative intensities (Si2p/C1s) were shown as the rate at which coated paper was covered with ink while the relative intensities (Cu2p/C1s) were shown as the exposure ratio of ink pigments. The relative intensity (Si2p/C1s) decreased with the increase of ink transferred area and leveled out at the lowest value. The region of leveling off indicated that ink almost covered the coated paper. The relative intensities (Cu2p/C1s) in this region were approximately regarded as the exposure ratio of ink pigments to ink vehicle.
 The intensity (Cu2p/C1s) of the printed samples on coated layers with high micro-pore volume was high. The exposure ratio of ink pigments on gravure prints of the coated paper was correlated with liquid absorption into the same paper by Bristow method.
The penetration of water based gravure ink on coated papers could be estimated from the relative intensity (Cu2p/C1s) by ESCA. This technique was directly adapted to the gravure prints.


Keyword: gravure ink, ESCA, liquid absorption, Bristow method