Reduces Both COD and Through Deoxidization
Aience Co., Ltd.
Biological processes, in particular activated sludge are commonly
used as secondary treatment methods in paper-industry sewage systems.
What is less widely known, however is that the use of an aeration
system (aeration efficiency) can greatly improve treatment performance.
It would be no exaggeration to say that because most drainage treatment
plans operate independently of production facilities, an unnecessarily
high degree of carelessness is common in the industry. A little
more attention in this area could substantially cut losses in a
company’s net profits. As the term biological process suggests,
by activating microorganisms, it is possible to reduce the amount
of BOD and COD in wastewater.
But when use incorrectly this basic technique can be counterproductive, making
it difficult to reduce the load and at the same time, producing a large quantity
of sewerage. What causes this to occur? The answer lies in the subtle relationship
between oxygen and microorganisms, which when not properly dealt with can create
needless problems. Microorganisms, with the exception of large amounts of artificially
created chemical substances, thrive in direct relation to their immediate environment.
And like human beings, some microorganisms metabolize energy with oxygen. In
other cases, they metabolize with nitric-acid or sulfuric-acid ions. However,
by using aerobic drainage treatment methods such as activated sludge that cause
non-oxygen metabolization, not only does a decrease in treatment speed occur,
but odor and bulking (filamentous bacterium) frequently result. To prevent these
unwanted consequences, it is necessary to efficiently diffuse the oxygen in the
BOD load in an existing diffusion tube becomes, the more difficult the process
To solve this problem, by raising the water and sludge from the bottom of tank,
Aience’s revolutionary water treatment system makes use of a technique that greatly
circulation of the water and improves performance in a way that has been impossible
The Latest Environmental Load Reduction Technology in Wastewater
Engineering Dept. Eco-sojyution Group, Facility Management Services
Division, Kurita Water Industries LTD.
Three systems were introduced as the latest environmental load
reduction technologies. 1) The supercritical water oxidization
system uses supercritical water to rapidly decompose organic
compounds into water and CO2. It can carry out complete decomposition
of the high strength organic matter, organic sludge and persistant
organic pollutants. 2) ANAMMOX Bacteria have completely different
new nitrogen metabolism from other bacteria, and generate nitrogen
gas from nitrous acid and ammonia under anaerobic condition.
By combining nitrous acid oxidization and ANAMMOX reaction, significant
reduction of treatment cost and CO2 can be achieved compared
to the conventional nitrogen removal system. 3) The activated
sludge system utilizing protozoa generates 70% or fewer excess
sludge compared with a standard activated sludge process without
additional energy requirement.
The following three systems were introduced as environmental
load reduction technologies in the paper and pulp industries.
1) Moving bed biofilm reactor is the latest biofilm process.
Backwashing is not required in MBBR and the maintenance is very
easy. Because of the high treatment efficiency, low concentration
wastewater can be processed within shorter time. It is also more
suitable for wastewater treatment process of paper and pulp industries.
2) The super-high loding anaerobic reactor was developed by improving
UASB. Applicability to KP drainage, DIP wastewater, and neutral
paper-making wastewater have been already confirmed. 3) The chemical
addition control system based on optical dispersion sensor is
applied to flocculation process and dewatering process of excess
sludge. The sensor detects the optimal flocculation condition
using laser light dispersion and optimises the chemical dosage.
Compared with in manual operation, about 30 percent reduction
of the chemical dosage is possible. Moreover, combined use of
ogranic coagulants in this system enhances further reduction
of inorganic coagulants.
Status and Trend of Environmental Laws and Regulations
Oji paper Company Limited Environmental Management Dept.
Since the 1990s, many environment-related laws and regulations
have been enacted and put in force, one feature of which is the
reinforcement of waste and chemical substance management for
environmental conservation. The other is the establishment of
a framework for a sustainable society, ranging from effective
utilization of resources and eco-friendly goods to environmental
report and education. Ministry of the Environment has played
the central role in these environmental policies after the reorganization
in January 2001.
As for waste management, twelve laws have been promulgated between 1995 and
6 of which are recycling-related ones. And "Waste Management and Public
Cleansing Law" has been frequently revised for the past few years including
the revision in May 2005, though it was said that the revision in 2000 was final.
This law must be paid attention by not only person in charge but also business
people because the industrial waste is generated in wide range of businesses
irrespective of its size and has to be treated under many requirements.
In regards to chemical substance management, effective laws and regulations
have been implemented to reduce pollutants such as Dioxins. On the other hand,
voluntary action practiced by industry sectors has been also efficient to decrease
hazardous chemicals, in accordance with the principles of “PRTR law”, “Air Pollution
Control Law” and so on, which is very different from traditional approach through
national emission standards.
There are some laws and regulations needed to be monitored cautiously in pulp
and paper industry, which is the introduction of VOC regulation in “Air Pollution
Control Law”, the revision of total pollutant load control in “Water Pollution
Control Law” and the spreading of odor regulation based on humane olfactory perception.
Recently PCB waste treatment has begun and early registration discount system
by Japan Safety Corporation (JESCO) is currently in progress. It is desirable
to cope with this type of movement in a planned manner.
What is Multi-chemical Sensitivity?
Graduate School of Frontier Sciences
The University of Tokyo
Are there any ones who intend to induce sick-house syndromes
or multi-chemical sensitivity problems? Who is responsible for
these indoor environmental problems? Any stakeholders of the
indoor environment, such as building designers, constructors,
and industries of construction materials and consumer products
do not intentionally draw the serious problems. They are generated
as side effects of mitigation measures of some environmental
To prevent climate change and resources depletion issues, various
new technologies have been developed. Airtight houses can contribute
to conserve energy for cooling and heating by reducing air exchange
rates. However, the airtight house tends to be more polluted
by volatile organic compounds because their concentration is
reciprocally proportional to the air exchange rate. Energy conservation
by contracting airtight houses conflicts with indoor air pollution.
These kinds of dilemma or multi-lemma issues are real causes
of sick house syndromes and multi-chemical sensitivity problems.
sick house syndrome, multi-chemical sensitivity, dilemma, climate
Waste Utilization Technologies in Japanese Cement Industry
Business Promotion Department, Environmental Business Company
Taiheiyo Cement Corporation
The cement production process has the special characteristic
of being able to use large volumes of waste and by-products as
raw materials and fuel. The Japanese cement industry produced
73.5 million tons of cement in 2003 and used 27.6 million tons
of waste and by-products as alternative raw materials and fuel.
The cement industry can be seen as the nucleus of an industrial
cluster in the field of the waste utilization.
In recent years, though the production output of cement is
on a declining trend, the expectations and requests from the
society for more utilization of waste are increasing, so the
structure of the industrial cluster has been changing. The Japanese
cement industry has developed the new technologies for waste
management, and worked toward increasing the treatment quantity
and the utilization of more difficult items to dispose.
In this report, the present situation of the waste utilization
in Japanese cement industry and the new waste utilization technologies
Keywords: waste utilization, cement industry, incinerated
ash of municipal waste, sewage sludge,
municipal solid waste,
Environment and Economy Division, Environment Policy Bureau
Ministry of the Environment
The recent social and economic system of mass production, mass
consumption and mass disposal has offered us convenient and comfortable
life. But, it has put huge burden on natural environment, and
the balance between the socio-economic system and our natural
environment has been severely damaged. Now, the existence of
human being is threatening.
We have to convert this socio-economic system of the 20th century
to one which is sustainable and recyclable and is characterized
as “suitable production, suitable consumption and minimal disposal”.
To establish this sustainable recycling society, everyone including
business people, consumers and government persons should voluntarily
and aggressively take part in the movement. Especially, business
enterprises which play a major role in the socio-economic activity
are expected to work actively, whether they are large or small
or whatever business they are in.
Large corporations are willingly working for sustainable environment
by taking ISO 14001. But, it is also a fact that not a few small
business enterprises are pro production and are not affordable
in expense for environment conservation. Recently the good behavior
for environment conservation is becoming one of requisites for
business deal and those who neglect it will surely lose their
Eco-action 21 targets to urge those small enterprises which
are significant in the socio-economic activity to become environmentally
friendly. Its characteristics and procedure are discussed.
Simple system setup for ISO 14001
Japanese Standard Association, Management Systems Enhancement
Many enterprises are working to get the certificate of ISO 14001
in Japan. ISO 14001 intends to be helpful to solve global environmental
problems like the global warming by individual and voluntary
efforts of improving environmental management system in every
enterprise. Therefore, it is welcomed that ISO 14001 is more
commonly obtained everywhere.
As recent environmental problems are diversified in many kinds
like dioxins, environmental hormones, land pollution and waste
disposal, it is more important for enterprises to have their
own environment management system which is capable of proper
risk management, not one just asking to obey laws. The meaning
of getting the certificate exists in this capability.
Large corporations are getting ISO 14001 and the trend is now
prevailing in smaller organizations as well. The incentive of
getting the certificate is : better environment conservation
work, one of corporation policies, an improved corporation image,
an international trend, evaluation by a third party, a requirement
by customers, improving corporate management system and eliminating
environmental risks. It is important to clarify the intention
of introducing ISO 14001 and to get substantial return. Otherwise,
it would be for the sake of written forms or be too exaggerated.
The author will explain how to set up an efficient system which
he calls “simple system setup” through his experience as an inspector.
Compactness for Agility and Stability of Wet-end Process with
the POM System Improves the Paper Machine Production Efficiency
Aikawa Iron Works Co., Ltd.
The first concept of the POM Compact Wet-End System was the
minimizing of the thick stock and the short circuit volume to
get fast and
precise response for small lot & many grade changes paper
production machine. The POMix is a thick stock mixer with small
volume and high efficiency to avoid huge volume mixing and machine
chests. The POM header is developed for the process that is handled
in a closed hydraulic system without tanks and vessels. The back
water must be degassed by the POMp before feeding it into the
closed system. The POM lock is the very compact system to avoid
the seal pit. Contrary to people's fear, it was proved that the
POM Compact Wet-End System yielded improved stability and operability.
And additionally, it was proved that the POM system is cleaner,
smaller energy consumption, better paper strength than traditional
Today, it is recognized that POM Compact Wet-End System improves
the productivity not only for the small lot & many grade
changes paper production machine, but also for the writing printing
paper, the news printing paper, liner paper, board paper, and
tissue paper machine.
JK-BC System as A Highly Advanced Waste Water Treatment System
−Waste Water Treatment Test With Bacilli at Paper Mills −
ITOCHU SANKI CORPORATION, Environmental Technology Development
MITSUBISHI PAPER MILLS LIMITED, HACHINOHE MILL, Power Sec. Pulp
The JK-BC system is a wastewater treatment system developed as
an evolution of activated sludge process and rotating biological
contactor process. It uses bacilli (aerobic bacteria) preferentially
cultured to a high concentration in combination with JK-BC system
(three-dimensional rotating biological contactor) to bring about
an evolution in the field of wastewater treatment. The JK-BC system
has made it possible to treat high-concentration wastewater to
remove nitrogen, phosphor, and odors which cannot be eliminated
by the conventional bacteria.
Is Your Slitting System Cutting into Your Profits?
Dienes Werke GmbH & Co., KG
Knowing the details of your slitting operation, can lead to
higher quality and reduced costs in some unexpected ways. Many
and paper manufacturers could have a slow steady profit loss
they may not even know about. Perhaps they have got used to frequent
knife changes and time consuming set ups of a poorly designed
slitter, even though it is costing them money.
As companies tighten up their operations, many are discovering
that they can cut costs, reduce product waste, minimise downtime
by taking a look at their slitting systems. Understanding the
fundamentals of slitting is important, and knowing how to evaluate
a system for a specific application can build up the bottom line.
Something as simple as changing the process can make a big difference.
Analysis of Behavior of Rosin Glycerin Ester in Rosin Ester Emulsion
Size by Visualization Using ToF-SIMS
Yasuyuki Matsushita, Ai Ookura, Takanori Imai and Kazuhiko Fukushima
Graduate school of Bioagricultual Science, Nagoya University
Technical Center, Nagoya University
Recently, in order to prevent water penetration, the rosin size
emulsion that contains abietic acid, maleic rosin and rosin glycerin
ester has been applied at many mills in neutral papermaking conditions.
It is said that the role of the rosin glycerin ester is to prevent
the dissolving of abietic acid and maleic rosin into water. To
make clear this, the behavior of the rosin glycerin ester in rosin
sizes in different papermaking conditions was investigated by ToF-SIMS
(time of flight type secondary ion mass spectrometry). To assure
certain detection of the rosin glycerin ester, we used a deuterium-labeled
rosin glycerin ester synthesized using deuterium-labeled glycerin
and analyzed by searching the deuterium ion peak. This labeling
method was very useful for our purpose. ToF-SIMS images and the
measurement of sizing effectiveness of handsheets prepared in different
pH showed that rosin sizes containing rosin glycerin ester exhibited
sufficient sizing effectiveness, and rosin glycerin ester still
remained on pulp fiber surface in alkaline as well as in neutral
papermaking conditions. However, rosin sizes without rosin glycerin
ester did not show the size effectiveness in a neutral condition
and that suggested abietic acid and maleic rosin were dissolved.
This result supported the past research that rosin glycerin ester
prevents the dissolving of abietic acid and maleic rosin into water
in a neutral condition.
Key words: ToF-SIMS, rosin sizes, rosin glycerin ester, deuterium-labeling
Ink Penetration Mechanisms for Modified Calcium Carbonate-coated
Dmitry Ivutin*, Toshiharu Enomae and Akira Isogai
Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, the University
Kazumasa Matsumoto† and Kenzo Nakanishi‡
Konica Minolta Technology Center, Inc.
Nowadays, ink jet printing systems are widely used not only
for personal use, but for advanced commercial printing capable
of outputting variable information continuously, prepress
of offset printing, non-contact printing on curved surfaces
of packages and many other applications in industry. Manufacturing
technology of ink-jet paper, one of the ink-jet media, is
rapidly developing, but not keeping pace with improvements
in printing speed and size reduction of ink droplets developed
by novel ink-jet head technology. Commercial ink-jet papers
are made from silica or alumina as a coating pigment, both
of which give high image quality, but are expensive. The
present work aims at efficient use of calcium carbonate
as an alternative of silica for ink receptive coating layers.
Commercial calcium carbonate was ground mechanically or
dissolved partially with hydrochloric acid to reduce and
equalize the aggregates size. Trial ink-jet papers were
prepared and some of them were plasma-etched to give a hydrophilic
property. The trial ink-jet papers were evaluated in terms
of dynamic behavior of ink droplets ejected from a test
ink-jet head by a microscopic high-speed video camera system
and of ink penetration depth determined by confocal laser
scanning microscope (CLSM). Particle size reduction of calcium
carbonate pigment by mechanical grinding and hydrochloric
acid dissolution decreased ink dot area and dot roughness
on the papers. This result suggests that particle size reduction
improves image quality. Based on the criterion standard
that smaller the dot area, the better the image quality,
the efficient processes were mechanical grinding, hydrochloric
acid dissolution and plasma-etching in the decreasing order.
It is concluded that particle size reduction decreases pore
size of the coating structures and consequently ink droplets
tend to penetrate deep in coatings rather than spread laterally
Keywords: coating layer, confocal laser scanning
microscope, ink-jet printing, grinding, plasma-