JAPAN TAPPI JOURNALVol.
October 2004 Abstracts
The Proposal to Association Activity: Aim at Base Strengthening of an Association
In 1994, a project team has submitted to the board of directors "The Guideline
for the 21st Century: the report entitled "aiming at training of the engineer
who bears the next generation, and higher technology". Then, it has worked
according to the recognized report. The proposal was again looked over by leading
the Junior Steering Committee in 1998. As a result "The Guideline for the
21st Century: aiming at the further development" was submitted anew. Henceforth,
activity has been promoted that this proposal should be materialized. Since five
years were passed after that, while the Junior Steering Committee takes the lead
and summarizes activity in the meantime again, in order to strengthen the base
of JATAN TAPPI, the report about a new action policy was submitted to the board
of directors in June, 2004, and it was recognized.
Troubleshooting Activated Sludge Problems
Rick Marshall Marshall Environmental Training & Consulting Group
Hidesato ShimotoNovozymes Biologicals Japan Ltd.
Operating treatment systems for the pulp and paper industry can be quite challenging
considering that treatment regulations are getting more stringent and mills are
changing their operations. The mill operation changes have changed wastewater
characteristics and the loadings to previously successful operating plants. The
result is that some existing treatment plants cannot consistently meet their
effluent discharge permit.
Success or failure in activated sludge systems depends on growing a biology
that has good settling characteristics that will produce a quality final effluent
from the secondary clarifier. There are many problems that can occur in activated
sludge systems such as poor settling and foaming. This paper discusses these
problems by listing possible symptoms for each problem, the potential causes
and the methods available to correct or control the problem.
MC Series of Bacterium Products for Troubleshooting in Activated Sludge Processing
Hideomi Matsuoka and Takuji Yamamoto
Ichihara Laboratory, Seiko PMC Corporation
The extraordinarily large amount of the industrial water is used in the pulp
and paper industry among major domestic industries. It is discharged through
the process in the secondary treatment such as bio-treatment process. Therefore,
the wastewater treatment at the bio-treatment processing in the pulp and paper
industry is an important theme. Although bio-treatment processing is a popular
method, many factories are facing problems at wastewater treatment with several
factors, such as increase of load and process fluctuations. Moreover, since it
is assumed that the regulation for effluent standard becomes stricter due to
consideration of environment issues, the demands for the improvement on capability
and stable operation for bio-treatment processing are increasing year-by-year.
In these circumstances, we have been applying products by the name of “MC Series”
for Bioaugmentation. The Bioaugmentation is the practice to add bacterial preparations
which have high growth capability into the current bio-treatment process. The
bacterial preparations in MC Series have specific catabolic abilities which can
degrade certain components in the wastewater. Bioaugmentation can enhance the
performance of an indigenous biomass to respond against process fluctuation.
In this article, it introduces the feature of MC Series, the results of field
tests and “MC + Chlorination processing” which is a new method of filamentous
bulking treatment. These results indicate that the MC Series lineup meets the
various requirements for industrial wastewater treatment at pulp and paper industry.
It is considered that it can contribute to the pulp and paper industry on the
reduction for environmental impact.
Continuous measurement of Biochemical Oxygen Demand by microbial BODs biosensor
Oji Scientific Instruments Co., Ltd., Osaka Office
BODs biosensor, BF-2000, with immobilized microorganisms was developed for
measuring the biochemical oxygen demand in industrial wastewater. BF-2000 is
able to use even microorganisms in active sludge other than Trichosporon sp.
Also BF-2000 is adopting antiseptic tubing to prevent blockage by microbial
contamination. BF-2000 is able to equip wastewater sampling/dilution system and
data transmission systems to improve the performance. The result that measured
various kind of wastewater by using the BODs biosensor is shown.
Keywords: BOD, Biosensor, immobilization, microorganism, instrument, wastewater
Introduction of Mitsubishi Di-electric Droplet Scrubber for Sub-Micron ParticleRemoval
Morio Kagami Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe Shipyard & Machinery
Machinery & Environment Plant Department
For oil fired boiler plant, SO3 gas is cooled down forming very fine mists
through wet type flue gas desulfurization system (wet-FGD). Therefore, removal
of SO3 mists is very poor at FGD absorber, which causes a long visible smoke
from the stack. To overcome this problem, installation of wet type electrostatic
precipitator (wet-ESP) is the most suitable, however this system is not widely
used due to the space limitation or expense.
An advanced gas cleaning system has been developed, which incorporates the
function of wet-ESP into wet-FGD. This paper introduces the principle of the
new technology, along with the operational experience at the commercial scale
plant. This system is called Mitsubishi Di-electric Droplet Scrubber (MDDS).
Biological Transporting Bed of Waste Water Processing System (Ryu Ryu Bio System)
for Paper Mill
Environment Plant Division, HYMO CORPORATION
Waste water from paper mill is much quantity, but it is comparatively clean
without SS. Requirement for environment management increases recently, and regulation
about waste water becomes severe. On the other hand, the quality of waste water
from paper mill have taken a turn for the worse due to request of paper recycle.
And now paper mill become to have new waste water treatment in order to prevent
water pollution. We have developed for 8 years a simple waste water processing,
that have Transporting Bed I called( Ryu Ryu Bio System). I will show the history
and feature of Ryu Ryu Bio System.
Wastewater Treatment by Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor Using Sponge Media
Environmental R&D Dept., Water Environmental Technology Development Center
The moving bed biofilm reactor using sponge media has characteristics such
as that can be operated with high load BOD and easy maintenance. Pilot plant
tests using this reactor were conducted for paper mill wastewater treatment.
And so the performance of full scale moving bed biofilm reactor using sponge
media was investigated, modifying an existing paper mill wastewater treatment
In the pilot plant test, S-COD was removed over 65% at COD volumetric loadings
below 4kg/(m3･d), and S-BOD was removed over 90% at BOD volumetric loadings below
3.5 kg/(m3･d). The moving bed biofilm reactor using sponge media showed high
performance of organic removal. Furthermore this pilot plant effluent COD was
removed about 80% by chemical precipitation test, conducted with the addition
of 200mg/L as Al2(SO4)3･18H2O and 1mg/L as anion polymer at pH 6. These results
show that soluble and particle organics is removed effectively by combined process
of moving bed biofilm reactor and chemical precipitation.
In the full scale moving bed biofilm reactor, S-COD was removed over 70% at
S-COD volumetric loadings below 2 kg/(m3･d), about 60% at S-COD volumetric loadings
of around 3 kg/(m3･d),and S-BOD was removed over 90% at S-COD volumetric loadings
below 2.5 kg/(m3･d). Performance of full scale plant was higher than designed
value with 60% S-COD removal at S-COD volumetric loadings below 2.5 kg/(m3･d)
These results show that high organic load treatment is achieved with the moving
bed biofilm reactor using sponge media for paper mill wastewater, and this reactor
is effective for improvement of existing plant.
Keywords: Paper Mill Wastewater, Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor, Sponge Media, High
New Wastewater Treatment System for Pulp and Paper Factory
Water Engineering Dept., Environmental System Div., Engineering & Environment
Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd.
The wastewater treatment system applied to the pulp and paper factory is required
to save space and to save cost of construction and operation. In this paper 3
systems which suits the requirement are introduced.
1) BiobedR EGSB system is a high load anaerobic wastewater treatment technology
using the granular biomass. This technology has merits-high organic loading capacity,
low power consumption, less sludge discharge, energy recovery from bio-gas.
2) Sumi-Sludge system is a space saving wastewater treatment system. Sumi-thickener
- High rate coagulation and sedimentation system - is combined to activated sludge
3) The membrane bio reactor (MBR) system applies submerged membrane units inside
of the aeration tank of activated treatment process. The permeated water quality
is very clear. This system is a high space saving wastewater treatment technology.
Keywords: wastewater treatment, anaerobic, EGSB, UASB, Coagulation and sedimentation,
Membrane bio reactor, MBR, Submerged membrane
Application of Oxygen Activated Sludge Treatment(UNOX System) for Pulp and Paper
Sales Department Environmental Business Headquarters
Showa Engineering Co., Ltd.
UNOX system has been used in various fields as its unique treatment process
for years, and the number of installations reaches over 130 plants in sewage
and industrial waste treatment in which 35 plants are for pulp and paper waste.
This process was developed in a leading chemical company in USA. In Japan,
Showa Engineering, which took over Showa UNOX K.K, has been marketing since introduction
of UNOX technology, and has continously advanced UNOX system with lots of experiences;
especially for cost-reduction of both construction and operation as well as for
optimum design conditions.
Since UNOX system uses high purity oxygen gas as aeration gas instead of air,
there are many advantages compared to a conventional treatment process.
Thanks to customer’s highly evaluation for UNOX system, the large size treatment
plants in pulp and paper waste have been mostly UNOX system. Besides, the expansion
is to the existing plant are similarly UNOX system. We are convinced that UNOX
system is one of established wastewater treatment process on its treatment performance
as well as economical process.
We, herein, have just made an evaluation of UNOX system based on the past achievements
in pulp and paper wastewater.
Keywords: Usage of high purity oxygen, Energy-saving-plant
Solvent Exhaust Gas Treatment Technology
AC Operations Department, Toyobo Co., Ltd.
With environmental problems attracting global attention, efforts are being
made in industry to protect the environment by acquiring ISO14000 series certification
and adopting industry-based control and improvement. Trends are growing in implementing
Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR) laws to protect the atmosphere,
in enforcing ordinances for preserving the environment through penal regulation
(a first in Japan being implemented in Saitama Prefecture) and in including emission
regulations for volatile organic compounds (VOC) thought to cause photochemical
oxidants and suspended particulate matter in The Air Pollution Control Law in
the Japanese Diet. This calls for further cooperation among enterprises.
Since preserving the global environment is a top social priority, enterprises
are expected to bear the cost of measures regarding substances and low-concentration
exhaust gas not yet included in emission regulations but expected to be monitored
VOC (primarily high-concentration exhaust gas) are recovered or burned in attempts
to save on equipment and run cost. In view of emission regulations and the work
environment, however, low-concentration, high-capacity exhaust gas must also
be treated. Enterprises must thus be thoroughly knowledgeable about how such
exhaust gas occurs to select effective, appropriate treatment.
This paper outlines the selection of VOC treatment based on gas occurrence
and the purpose of treatment. It introduces principle and features of exhaust
gas treatment equipment. Representative equipment manufactured by Toyobo Co.,
Ltd. is given below.
K-filter solvent adsorption equipment involves fixed-floor adsorption recovery
using activated carbon fiber that enables recovered solvent to be reused. Honey-rotor
adsorption condensation equipment uses low-pressure-loss, high-performance adsorbent
obtained by fabricating hydrophobic zeolite or activated carbon in a honeycomb
configuration, condensing high-capacity, low-concentration exhaust gas into low-capacity,
high-concentration gas and making after-treatment equipment compact and inexpensive.
The treatment principle behind K-MATROLL is to adsorb and condense exhaust gas
by rotating a belt of adsorbent activated carbon fiber before catalytically oxidizing
condensed gas using compact exhaust gas treatment equipment, i.e., K-MATROLL.
We recommend the above equipment for effectively treating exhaust gas case by
Keyword: volatile organic compounds, VOC, Air Pollution Control, K-filter
K-filter solvent adsorption equipment, hydrophobic zeolite,
Honey-rotor adsorption condensation equipment, K-MATROLL
Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer (RTO) For VOC Destruction
Air Pollution Control Dept, Environmental Equipment Div, CHUGAI RO Co., Ltd.
The Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer (RTO) is one of the most efficient pollution
control system available for the elimination of fumes, odors, solvents and other
volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from process exhaust air of ovens, coaters,
dryers, chemical systems, and similar processing equipment.
RTO is designed to burn VOCs at high temperature of 800℃ to 1000℃ while minimizing
operation costs. To save fuel, RTO uses the regenerative principle in which equipped
ceramic media (honeycomb type) are alternately heated and cooled.
Up to 99% of the polluting VOCs are converted to harmless substance such as
water and carbon dioxide by thermal oxidization, while up to 98% of the waste
energy is recovered and reused for the preheating process. This RTO system has
come into wide use in Europe and America since 1980’s to effective control VOCs,
and recently has taken notice of the person in concern in Japan.
This paper explains briefly about the RTO technology for VOCs destruction.
Treatment and Utilization Technology of Coal Ash in Electric Power Industry
Sector, Fuel and Combustion Engineering, Energy Engineering Research Laboratory
Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry
The amount of ash generating and its future prediction, and the actual condition
of processing, disposal, and effective use technology on coal ash which are generated
with an electric power industry are introduced. In the present condition, it
is presumed that the amount of coal ashes generating increases steadily, and
amounts to 9 million t at 2010 age. Since a limitation is in the reclamation
disposal ground and an expensive waste processing expense is required when coal
ashes are used for cement raw material, the valuable effective use technology
should be developed immediately. Although each electric power company is developing
extensive use technology in civil engineering works or a construction field energetically,
an actual result in field is not gotten yet. Therefore it is necessary to develop
a valuable effective use technology continuously from viewpoints, such as reliability,
economical efficiency, and environmental protection.
Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry considers “control of
the amount of coal ashes generating”, “quality improvement of coal ashes”, and
“the advancement of coal ashes use technology” as a technical subject which increases
the valuable rate of effective use of coal ashes. The outline of research that
we investigate for these subjects is introduced.
Keywords: coal ash, effective utilization technology, electric power industry,
coal fired powerplant
Reports of 2004 TAPPI PAPER SUMMIT
Pulp and Paper Research Laboratory of Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.
2004 TAPPI PAPER SUMMIT took place in Atlanta, GA, USA during May 3-5 in 2004.
Technical papers included 150 papers in the oral presentations and 8 papers in
the poster presentations. They dealt with the topics of innovation in paper making,
environment, recycling, product performance, people and infrastructure, manufacturing
excellence, maintenance and reliability, and U.S. department of energy agenda
2020 R&D. In this report, innovation of filler, sizing, online sensor, and
head box were reviewed.
Keywords: papermaking, innovation, recycling, environment
Improvement of Hardwood Pulp Yield in Continuous Kraft Cooking and Estimation
of Pulp Yields (Part II)- A Mill Trial at A Continuous Digester -
Hiroshi Ohi and Tomoya Yokoyama
Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba
Hokuetsu Paper Mills, Ltd.
Guest scientist at the center for Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance (TARA),
University of Tsukuba
Ryuichi Suzumi and Takeshi Sato
Hokuetsu Paper Mills, Ltd.
The optimal conditions of isothermal cooking (ITC) for the improvement of pulp
yields were applied to a mill trial using mixed hardwoods, polysulfide (PS),
anthraquinone (AQ) and a continuous digester. PS cooking liquor containing 70%
of total alkali and AQ (0.02% on wood) were charged into a chip-feeding circulation
line, and then kraft cooking liquor containing 30% of total alkali was introduced
into three circulation lines, i.e., top-cooking, bottom-cooking, and washing,
where temperature reached about 130-145°C. Results from laboratory cooks of the
mixed hardwoods showed that a linear correlation existed between pulp yields
and ratios of xylose to glucose (X/G ratios), liberated from the pulps by an
acid hydrolysis. Pulp yields at a mill trial could be estimated by knowing X/G
ratios of the mill pulps. It was indicated that the PS-AQ ITC under the optimal
conditions gave pulps with 0.235 X/G ratios at kappa number 18-19. It means that
PS-AQ ITC shows about 7% higher pulp yields than laboratory kraft cooking and
at least about 1.4% yield increases compared with the kraft ITC.
Keywords: kraft cooking, isothermal cooking, polysulfide, anthraquinone, carbohydrate,