TAPPI JOURNALVol. 57, No.10
October 2003 Abstracts
Taking Action Against Climate Change - Away from the Extraordinary Society of
the Second Half of the 20th Century
Prof. Faculty of Economics Saitama University
The second half of the 20th Century was an extraordinary age of global scale
mass consumption resulting in depletion of resources and simultaneous environmental
pollution caused by big business competition of global capitalism. It was an
unprecedented experience not only within human history but also that of the Earth,
injuring the Earth's system itself, for example, ozone layer depletion, climate
change, pollution due to chemical products and so on. Many argue for a shift
towards "Sustainable development" but it is extremely difficult to
move to a sustainable society directly from the 20th century which is ideologically
almost the complete opposite. It may be impossible to find the path to a sustainable
society leading from the preceding part of the 20th Century, without a drastic
revolution in our way of business society. In this short note the extremes of
the second half of the 20th Century are discussed and suggestions made for the
starting point for a sustainable society for the next millennium. Taking action
against climate change might be just one of significant departures away from
the prior development patterns of the 20th Century.
Global Warming Issues with Pulp and Paper Industry in Japan
Paper Industry, Consumer and Recreational Goods Division, Manufacturing Industries
Bureau, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry
To fulfill the commitment of the Kyoto Protocol adopted in December 1997, the
promotion of measures on the global warming is a critical issue in the field
of pulp and paper industry, which is one of the major energy users. However,
investments on environment field such as energy conservation have not been so
active, because of the recent situation of overall economy and individual corporate
profit. Thus, for pulp and paper industry, it is essential not only to deal with
environmental issues, but also to strengthen its competitive advantages. In order
to realize these, we have to fully understand situations and problems that the
industry is facing. From this viewpoint, government's policy measures, current
situation and issues of the industry, and the strategy for strengthening its
competitiveness are discussed.
How to Evaluate Carbon Sequestration by Forests
Japan Forest Technology Association
Enhancing carbon sequestration by forests is important for mitigation of global
carbon dioxide. However, it is always necessary to consider the relationship
between carbon sequestration and carbon stock. Enhancing carbon sequestration
and maximizing carbon stock are both important for the strategies for mitigation
of carbon dioxide.
Carbon sequestration rate and amount of carbon accumulation vary according to
forest stand development stage, and the peak of sequestration rate and the highest
level of carbon stock cannot be realized at the same time. The peak of carbon
sequestration rate is fond in young stage, while highest carbon stock is found
in old-growth stage. So the target stand structure for enhancing carbon sequestration
should be aimed from young stage to mature stage, while that for maintaining
high carbon stock should be aimed in old-growth-stage.
Enhancing carbon sequestration can be realized by forest management for timber
production and maintaining high carbon stock can be realized by preservation
of forest ecosystems. Energy for processing materials can be reduced by using
timber for materials and the consumption of fossil fuels can be reduced by using
wood for energy. Using wood is important for establishing recycling-based society.
Strategies for Compliance with the Kyoto Protocol from Private Companies’ Point
Mitsubishi Research Institute Inc.
The Kyoto protocol is expected to enter into forth in 2004 and if so Japan will
be required to reduce greenhouse gas emission by 6% from the 1990 level in the
first commitment period (from 2008 through 2012).The unit cost of CO2 reduction
is high in Japan because of advanced energy saving measures already put in place
and reduction, if attempted to achieve only with domestic measures, would impose
great burdens on industries.
This paper discusses the importance of studying strategies and their possible
direction, giving consideration to future enterprises’ strategies to cope with
the Kyoto protocol.
Future Development in Comprehensive Risk Managementof Chemical Substance−Self-management
and Human Resource Enrichment−
Masaru Masuda, Ph. D.
Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture Engineering
Discussions on risk management of chemical substances have been repeated among
international organizations such as OECD from 1970’s, and have resulted in establishing
various concepts, principles and systems. Based on such trends, I have proposed
a concept of "Comprehensive Risk Management of Chemical Substances" making
full use of scientific knowledge and logical thinking. Self-management, mainstay
of the concept of "Comprehensive Risk Management of Chemical Substances," has
achieved great result.
Future trend can be predicted by observing the activities of the international
organizations, and through logical thinking based on scientific knowledge. First
come will seize the opportunity and contribute to positive growth in management.
Construction of new science on "Comprehensive Risk Management of Chemical
Substances" that discuss such matters from a bird’s-eye point of view has
been attempted, and human resource enrichment based on this new science is enfolding.
Necessity of Scientifically and Technically Sound Management of PRTR Designated
Chemical Risk Consultants
First Data Sets of Japanese Pollutants Release and Transfer Registry (PRTR)
System under the Law concerning Reporting, etc. of Releases to the Environment
of Specific Chemical Sub-stances and Promoting Improvements in Their Management
(Law for PRTR and Promotion of Chemical Management) has been published on March
20th, 2003 and there are some intentional activities urging industries on the
reduction of their environmental releases.
Considering these circumstances, we talk here about scientifically and technically
sound management of PRTR designated chemicals, from points of compliance with
the guidance provided by the law, voluntary setting of targets for environmental
releases, and risk communication.
Soil Contamination Countermeasures Law-The Present Status of Legislation in Japan
and Contamination Risk Management-
Geo-Environment Department, Environmental Control Center co., Ltd.
Soil contamination has been one of seven typical environmental problems and
the existing law was targeting only land for agricultural use. The new law, Soil
Contamination Countermeasures Law, which covers land of any kinds of use, is
now effective. The law specifies minimum requirements for preventing health hazards
and its objects are very narrowed. If you make a survey on the land strictly
with the minimum requirements specified by the law, there are chances of missing
some existing contamination. It will be very risky, when you want to do business
with the land. It will be advisable that you would make an enough extra survey,
taking into account its historical uses.
Recent Study on Water Quality Standards for the Conservation of Aquatic Life
Deputy Director, Water Management Division, Ministry of the Environment
The Expert Committee on the Water Quality Standards for the Conservation of
Aquatic Life recently launched its report on the technical matters and framework.
The report presents basic ideas on methods to set target figures to protect aquatic
life from pollution by heavy metals and chemical substances in rivers and other
water areas. Especially, this report points out the necessity of setting Water
Quality Standard on Zn, and Precautionary Monitoring Targets for formaldehyde,
phenol and chloroform. The contents of this report should be discussed in the
Water Management board in the Central Environment Council in this summer.
The Latest Web Inspection System and its Possibilities-Technology and Directivity
of NASP-Multi 500 System-
OMRON Corporation, Technology Development, Vision System Business DIV.
The web inspection system of OMRON renewed the technology of a detection part,
and accomplished change further as next generation system, NASP-Multi500.
The basic thought used as the base of the detection part is Platform-though.
That is, by mounting logical & software in basic digital hardware as a firmware,
variable of the logic becomes possible and it can reply to the daily demand in
the paper manufacture industry. As for detection algorithm, digital image processing
of our company original development is incorporated. It is mainly the fault from
which a light fault, a streak fault, and etc. serves as the object.
Thus, the web inspection system is developed in our company every day, catching
a demand of the paper manufacture industry exactly.
Development of Tesa EasySplice FastLine
Seiya Okamoto, Kashiwabara Yuki and Mukasa Munetaka
We introduced EasySplice FastLine for paper splicing at the last JTAPPI conference
Fortunately we’ve got many users of the tape in the Paper Industry. We are very
happy that we could serve to the Industry through new technology.
In this session I inform of the world wide achievements of technical and business
Then I’ll explain the pasting mechanism of EasySplice and introduce some technical
problems we had and solutions we gave for them.
At the end of lecture I’d like to speak about the development of EasySplice
technology. We are going to launch a new product for auto-preparation robot of
paper splicing. It has new concept best suitable for mechanical process though
conventional EasySplice is the most suitable for manual preparation.
Determination of the Surface Layer of Kraft Pulp Fibers by Field Emission Scanning
Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM)
Tetsuaki Okamoto and Gyosuke Meshitsuka
Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo
The surfaces of commercial softwood kraft pulp fibers were observed by FE-SEM
to determine the surface layers of the fibers. Unbleached pulp fibers were covered
by fibrils running in random fashion, and the fibrils sometimes extended to a
pit area, which were characteristics of the primary wall. The existence of primary
wall on the surfaces of unbleached kraft pulp fibers would cause the higher lignin
content of the surfaces of the fibers than that of the whole fibers. Large parts
of the primary wall were removed during bleaching process, and the fibrils running
densely perpendicular to the fiber axis were observed on full bleached pulp fibers,
which was a characteristic of the outer layer of secondary wall. The degree of
the primary wall removal was different between the pulp samples. In one pulp
sample, large amount of the primary wall was removed during oxygen delignification
stage, although, in another pulp sample, some removal took place during oxygen
Key words: kraft pulp, fiber surface, primary wall, secondary wall, fibril, FE-SEM
Life Cycle Assessment of Papers Used for Environmental Reports
Katsuhito Nakazawa and Kohei Yamada
Japan Science and Technology Corporation
Toru Katsura and Hiroaki Niwata
Mitsubishi Paper Mills, Ltd.
Graduate School of Engineering, Tokai University
Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo
The number of companies that published their environmental reports have increased
in recent years, and the recycled paper containing a larger amount of DIP (Deinked
pulp) with lower degree of brightness is used to print them for environmental
concerns. In this study, several different kinds of paper used for environmental
reports of many companies were investigated, and their environmental loads and
environmental impacts were evaluated by LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) method.
As for the characteristics of paper of eight environmental reports, paper containing
100% DIP was used for seven reports, and coated paper was used for three reports.
Compared with non-coated paper and coated paper, total CO2 emission caused by
coated paper through its life cycle was estimated larger because of the large
CO2 emission from the manufacturing of related chemicals such as latex. As a
result of LCI (Life Cycle Inventory) analysis of five kinds of paper used in
environmental reports, it was observed that the total energy consumption of paper
containing 100% DIP was smaller than those of paper containing wood and non-wood
pulp. The evaluation with respect to CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption
showed that the CO2 emissions caused by paper containing wood and non-wood pulp
were smaller than that caused by paper containing 100% DIP. Regarding LCIA (Life
Cycle Impact Assessment), with use of EPS 2000 and Panel method relatively little
difference was seen among the environmental impacts of five different kinds,
while it was shown by Eco-indicator 99 that the environmental impacts of paper
with wood and non-wood pulp were larger than those of the others.
For more detailed study, it is desirable to conduct LCA by considering land
use in relation to sustainable forest management, and biomass energy as renewable
Key words：Environmental report, Coated paper, Life cycle assessment, Life cycle
inventory analysis, Life cycle impact assessment